Rockets in India

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-3934-5_8847-2

Introduction

Fire arrows in some form have been known for thousands of years in several cultures (agni-bāṇa in Sanskrit). In contrast to arrows (even fire tipped) which are shot with the help of the stored elastic energy of a bowstring, rockets are entirely self-propelled, usually by conversion of the chemical energy stored in the propellant(s).

It is generally agreed that rockets were in use in China in the eleventh century CE, perhaps in the form of what we might now term a “rocket-assisted arrow”; over time the arrow came to be discarded as the rocket became sufficiently powerful to serve as a destructive warhead by itself. In 1232 CE, five years after Genghis Khan’s death, Chinese rocket barrages repeatedly repulsed Mongolian cavalry led by his successors in attacks on the city of Kaifeng (which nevertheless fell in 1233; Grousset, 1965). The invention traveled rapidly (presumably through the Mongols) to Europe, where it was first mentioned in 1258 CE and was experimented with and...

Keywords

Eighteenth Century Tacit Knowledge East India Company Baltimore Harbor Hindu Temple 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

Notes

Acknowledgments

I am grateful to the Indian National Science Academy for allowing me to make liberal use of the material in my article on ‘Rockets in Mysore and Britain (AD 1750-1850)’ in the Academy’s publication History of Technology in India, Vol. II (ed. H. Mukhia), 2012.

References

  1. Baker, D. (1978). The rocket. London, England: New Cavendish Books.Google Scholar
  2. Bhogle, S. (1991). An interview with O F Stripp. NAL Newsletter, 19, 4–6.Google Scholar
  3. Brittlebank, K. (1997). Tipu Sultan’s search for legitimacy: Islam and kingship in a Hindu domain. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Buddle, A. (1990). Tigers round the throne: Exhibition at Zamana Gallery, London, 2 August-14 December. London, England: Zamana Gallery.Google Scholar
  5. Buddle, A. (1999). The tiger and the thistle: Tipu Sultan and the Scots in India. Edinburg, TX: Edinburgh National Gallery of Scotland.Google Scholar
  6. Congreve, W. (1827). A treatise on the general principles, powers and facility of application of the Congreve Rocket System. London, UK: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green.Google Scholar
  7. Derry, T. K., & Williams, T. I. (1960). A short history of technology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Dirom, A. (1793) A narrative of the campaign in India which terminated the war with Tippoo Sultan, in 1792. New Delhi, India: Asian Educational Services (1985 reprint).Google Scholar
  9. Forrest, D. (1970). Tiger of Mysore. London, England: Chatto & Windus.Google Scholar
  10. Grousset, R. (1965). The rise and splendour of the Chinese empire. Berkeley, LA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  11. Guedalla, P. (1940). The Duke. London, England: World Books Reprint Society.Google Scholar
  12. Guerard, A. (1957). Napoleon I. London, England: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  13. Habib, I. (Ed.). (1999). Confronting colonialism: Resistance and modernization under Haider Ali & Tipu Sultan. New Delhi, India: Tulika (Indian History Congress 1999).Google Scholar
  14. Joppen, C. S. J. (1920). Historical Atlas of India. London, England: Longmans, Green, and Co.Google Scholar
  15. Kamath, S. U. (2002). A concise history of Karnataka. Bangalore, India: Jupiter Books.Google Scholar
  16. Kirmani, M. H. A. K. (1864). History of Tipu Sultan (translated from Persian by Col. W. Miles). New Delhi, India: Asian Educational Services (1986 reprint).Google Scholar
  17. Ley, E. (1958). Rockets, missiles, and space travel. London, England: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  18. Majumdar, R. C., Raychaudhuri, H. C., & Datta, K. (1958). An advanced history of India. London, England: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  19. Michaud, J. (1801–1809). History of Mysore under Hyder Ali and Tippo Sultan (V. K. Raman Menon, Trans.). Tripunithura, India: Vishnu & Company, 1926 (in French).Google Scholar
  20. Narasimha, R. (1999). Rocketing from the galaxy bazaar. Nature, 400, 123 (Millennium essay).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Narasimha, R. (2003). Science, technology and society: A tale about rocket development during 1750–1850. In R. Narasimha, S. K. Biswas, & J. Srinivasan (Eds.), The dynamics of technology. New Delhi, India: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Narasimha, R. (2012). Rockets in Mysore and Britain (AD 1750–1850). In H. Mukhia (Ed.), History of technology in India (Vol. II). New Delhi, India: Indian National Science Academy.Google Scholar
  23. Nevins, A., & Commager, H. S. (1956). The pocket history of the United States (Pocket Book). New York: Washington Square Press.Google Scholar
  24. Pacey, A. (1976). The maze of ingenuity. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  25. Pacey, A. (1983). The culture of technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  26. Qaisar, A. J. (1982). The Indian response to European technology and culture (A.D. 1498–1707). Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Rao, C. H. (1943). History of Mysore. Bangalore, India: Government Press.Google Scholar
  28. Said, E. W. (1979). Orientalism. New York: Knopf Doubleday.Google Scholar
  29. Singer, C., Holmyard, E. J., Hall, A. R., & Williams, T. J. (1958). A history of technology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Srinivasan, S., & Ranganathan, S. (2004). India’s legendary Wootz steel. Bangalore, India: National Institute of Advanced Studies and Indian Institute of Science.Google Scholar
  31. Trevelyan, G. M. (1959). A shortened history of England. London, England: Pelican.Google Scholar
  32. Tripathi, V. (2008). History of iron technology in India. New Delhi, India: Rupa & Co.Google Scholar
  33. Von Braun, W., & Ordway, F. I., III. (1966). History of rocketry and space travel. London, England: Nelson.Google Scholar
  34. Verhoeven, J. D., & Pendray, A., (1998). Muse, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 35–43.Google Scholar
  35. Werrett, S. (2009). William Congreve’s rational rockets. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 63, 35–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wilks, M. (1810). Historical sketches of the south of India in an attempt to trace the history of Mysore. Bangalore, India: Mysore Government Branch Press (1930 Reprint).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Engineering Mechanics UnitJawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific ResearchBangaloreIndia