Environment and Nature in Buddhism

  • Leslie E. SponselEmail author
  • Poranee Natadecha-Sponsel
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-3934-5_8564-2

Buddhism is an enormous, diverse, and complex subject. There are many variations on Buddhism’s basic themes manifested in the three major traditions (Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana or Tantric) and also in variants of these in the form of at least 18 schools and their numerous sects. Much of the diversity in the expression of Buddhism results from the diversity of its numerous geographical, ecological, demographic, historical, cultural, linguistic, religious, national, and political contexts. Although estimates vary, there are around 488 million Buddhists living in 86 countries of the world. Another complication is that many Buddhists adhere to more than one religion or follow a mixture of elements from different religions, such as Animism and Hinduism in Thailand, Confucianism and Daoism in China, and Shintoism in Japan. An additional variable is that, as in any religion, in Buddhism too there are differences between ideals and practice, text and context, clergy and laity, scholar...


Ecological Footprint Sacred Place Buddhist Text Voluntary Simplicity Ficus Religiosa 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of Hawai`iHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.Research Institute for Spiritual EcologyHonolulu, HIUSA