• Tom Holland
  • Sage Holland
  • Robert Bednarik
Living reference work entry

Of the Paleolithic forms of possible symbolic products, beads and pendants seem to tell us the most about the cognition and technology of their users. First, there are the purely technological aspects. To make a bead, one has to be able to drill through an object (or enlarge a natural perforation), thread a string through the hole, and fasten the ends of the string, presumably by knots (Warner & Bednarik, 1996). To persist with such a process of manufacture, one must have a mental construct of the end product and a desire to acquire what is clearly a non-utilitarian artifact. While the bead is such an artifact, the string is not, being utilitarian. It is merely a means of permitting the bead to fulfill its non-utilitarian role. Hence, this is a combination not only of diverse (composite) and interactive artifacts but also a hierarchy of diverse concepts of relating to them. The primary imperative, presumably, is to display the bead to its best advantage; the secondary intent is to...


Stone Tool Snail Shell Campanian Ignimbrite Ostrich Eggshell Symbolic Artifact 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MeadowcreekUSA
  2. 2.Caulfield SouthAustralia