Architecture: La Citadel of Haiti

  • Mohammad Gharipour
Living reference work entry

Located in northern Haiti, the impressive fort Citadel Laferrière sits at 3,000 ft (over 900 m) on the Bonnet-à-Lévêque, a mountain overlooking Haiti’s northern plain, near the village of Milot. The city of Cap Haitian is about 25 miles (40 km) away. An important symbol of Haitian independence, the fort was recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981. The location of the fortress offers a panoramic view to the entire northern region of Haiti and to the Caribbean Sea and the eastern side of Cuba.

There are few archival sources on the architects and builders of the Citadel. The fortress is said to have been designed in 1805 by a Haitian, Henri Barre or Besse, and other sources attribute its completion to a Scottish architect named Ferrier. Other accounts say it was designed by a French architect named Laferrière. None of this has been documented, however. Stretched across the mountain peak incorporating three sheer cliffs, the fort has four irregular sides, a long triangular...


Yellow Fever World Heritage Site Republican State French Army Interior Plateau 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Morgan State UniversityBaltimoreUSA