Reference Work Entry

Encyclopedia of Thermal Stresses

pp 4613-4640

Stresses in Laser Surface Nanostructuring

  • Xinwei WangAffiliated withDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University Email author 
  • , Yanan YueAffiliated withSchool of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University


As a maskless, top-down nanofabrication technique, the laser-assisted scanning tunneling microscope (STM), also termed near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) nowadays, provides a wide variety of potential applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Examples of such applications include surface nano-repair, fabrication and characterization of nano- to microscale integrated nanoelectronics and nanophotonics, and machining and aligning of nanoparticles and nanotubes/wires. In surface nanostructuring with NSOM, the STM tip is irradiated with a laser beam. The tip acts as a receiving antenna to collect laser energy and as a transmitting antenna to create a significantly enhanced optical field in proximity to the tip apex.

Extensive research has been conducted to explore mechanisms of NSOM surface nanostructuring [1, 2]. These mechanisms can be roughly classified into five categories. First, the STM tip undergoes a thermal expansion upon pulsed laser irradiation, re ...

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