Challenges, Changes, Concepts for Future Generations
  • Soenarto Sastrowijoto
  • S. Yati Soenarto
  • Nur Azid Mahardinata
  • Wika Hartanti
Reference work entry


Values and ethics in medicine have been discussed since ancient times: in Chinese medicine (2838–2698 BCE), in Babylonia (the Code of Hammurabi, 1780 BCE), in Sanskrit documents in India (1500 BCE), and in Greece (the Hippocratic Oath/Corpus, 430–330 BCE). In the following centuries, the teaching of ethics was found in the curriculum in China (AD 618–906), Rome (Galen, AD 700), and Arabia (al-Ruhani and Ibn Sina, Canon of Medicine, AD 900–1200). During the seventeenth century, the teaching of ethics was included in the curriculum in European medical education (Paris, Padua, Vienna, Leiden), and in the following centuries, America lead the way in medical education (Calman, 2007).


Continue Professional Development Biomedical Ethic Undergraduate Medical Student Disaster Victim Identification Global Mindset 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soenarto Sastrowijoto
    • 1
  • S. Yati Soenarto
    • 1
  • Nur Azid Mahardinata
    • 1
  • Wika Hartanti
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Medicine, Center for Bioethics & Medical HumanitiesUniversitas Gadjah Mada (UGM)YogyakartaIndonesia

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