Fair Trade

  • Nicole Hassoun
Reference work entry


Those who are concerned about global health have reason to care about poverty and environmental quality. Fair Trade is one way of ameliorating poverty and protecting the environment. After introducing Fair Trade certification schemas and considering some of the arguments for and against (different kinds of) trade in the literature, this chapter suggests some avenues for further research into new Fair Trade proposals that focus on health, in particular.


Fair Trade Poor People Fair Trade Product Body Shop Energy Star 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Angell, M. (2004). The truth about the drug companies: How they deceive us and what to do about it. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  2. Bacon, C. (2005). Confronting the coffee crisis: Can fair trade, organic, and specialty coffees reduce small-scale farmer vulnerability in northern Nicaragua? World Development, 33, 497–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnard, D. (2002). In the high court of South Africa, case no. 4138/98: The global politics of access to low-cost aids drugs in poor countries. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 12, 159–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhutta, M. F. (2006). Fair trade for surgical instruments. British Medical Journal, 333, 297–299. Retrieved from Google Scholar
  5. Calo, M., & Wise, T. A. (2005). Revaluing peasant coffee production: Organic and fair trade. Tufts University: Global Development and Environment Institute. Retrieved from
  6. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Vector control. Retrieved, from
  7. (2008). Energy Star has lost some luster the program saves energy but hasn’t kept up with the times. Retrieved, from
  8. Doyle, R. (2002). Calculus of happiness: Assessing subjective well-being across societies. Scientific American.Google Scholar
  9. EPA. (2009). EPA announces energy star homes reach nearly 17 percent market share for 2008. Retrieved, from!OpenDocument
  10. Eyal, N. (forthcoming). Global health impact labels. In E. J. Emanuel, & J. Millum (Eds.), Global justice in bioethics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Fair Trade Foundation. (2008). Fairtrade sales reach half a billion pounds. Retrieved, from
  12. Fairtrade Labeling Organization (FLO). (2009). Facts and figures. Retrieved, from
  13. Fashion United. (2010). The body shop targets 5 % market share. Retrieved, from
  14. FLO-CERT. (2009). FLO CERT GmbH: Home. Retrieved, from
  15. Franklin Research’s Insight. (1994). Investing for a better world. Retrieved, from
  16. Global Health Watch. (2005). Global health watch 2005–2006: An alternative world health report. New York: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  17. GoodWeave International. (2009). Working to end child labor in the handmade rug industry. Retrieved, from
  18. Hassoun, N. (2009). Free trade, poverty, and the environment. Public Affairs Quarterly, 22, 353–380.Google Scholar
  19. Hassoun, N. (2011a). Fair trade. In D. Chaterjee (Ed.), The encyclopedia of global justice (pp. 333–336). Dordrecht: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-9160-5_198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hassoun, N. (2011b). Making free trade fair. In V. Hendricks & D. Pritchard (Eds.), New waves in ethics (pp. 231–258). London: Palgrave and Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. Hassoun, N. (2012a). Global health impact: A basis for labeling and licensing campaigns? Developing World Bioethics. doi:10.1111/j.1471-8847.2011.00314.x.Google Scholar
  22. Hassoun, N. (2012b). Measuring global health impact: Incentivizing research and development of drugs for neglected diseases. In P. Lenard & C. Straehle (Eds.), Justice and global health inequalities (pp. 176–194). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hassoun, N. (2012c). Globalization and global justice: Shrinking distance, expanding obligations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Highleyman, L. (2002). The global justice movement. Retrieved, from
  25. Imhof, S., & Lee, A. (2007). Assessing the potential of fair trade for poverty reduction and conflict prevention: A case study of Bolivian coffee producers. Retrieved, from:
  26. International Fair Trade Association. (2008). What is fair trade? Retrieved, from
  27. James, A. (2009). A theory of fairness in trade. UC Irvine, Working Paper. Retrieved, from
  28. Kesselheim, A. S. (2008). Think globally, prescribe locally: How rational pharmaceutical policy in the US can improve global access to essential medicines. American Journal of Law & Medicine, 34, 125–139.Google Scholar
  29. Kurjanska, M., & Risse, M. (2008). Fairness in trade II: Export subsidies and the fair trade movement. Politics, Philosophy & Economics, 7, 29–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Leathers, H., & Foster, P. (2004). The world food problem: Tackling the causes of undernutrition in the third world. Colorado: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  31. McMahon, P. (2001). ‘Cause coffees’ produce a cup with an agenda. USA Today, A1–2.Google Scholar
  32. Milford, A. (2004). Coffee, co-operatives and competition: The impact of fair trade. Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute. Retrieved, from
  33. Mullins, C. D., Palumbo, F., & Stuart, B. (2000). Projections of drug approvals, patent expirations, and generic entry from 2000 to 2004. Baltimore, MD: University of Maryland. Retrieved, from
  34. Murray, D., Raynolds, L. T., Taylor, P. L. (2003). One cup at a time: Poverty alleviation and fair trade coffee in Latin America. Fort Collins: Colorado State University, Fair Trade Research Group. Retrieved, from
  35. New York Times. (1986). Analgesic makers in a battle. Retrieved, from =health&res=9A0DE7D91F31F93BA25751C0A960948260
  36. Pay, E. (2009). The market for organic and fair-trade coffee. FAO, 12. Retrieved, from
  37. Philips, J. (2008). Is there a moral case for fair trade products? On the moral duty for consumers to buy and for governments to support fair trade products. In R. Ruben (Ed.), The impact of fair trade (pp. 239–250). Wageningen, Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  38. Pogge, T. (2002). World poverty and human rights: Cosmopolitan responsibilities and reforms. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  39. Pogge, T. (2007). Intellectual property rights and access to essential medicines. Global Policy Innovations, Carnegie Council for International Affairs. Retrieved, from _library/data/FP4
  40. Raynolds, L. (2002). Poverty alleviation through participation in fair trade coffee networks: Existing research and critical issues. New York: The Ford Foundation. Retrieved, from
  41. Red Cross. (2007). American Red Cross urges public health precautions. Retrieved, from,1077,0_172_4554,00.htm
  42. Respect Fair Trade Sports. (2008). Gear shop. Retrieved, from
  43. Ronchi, L. (2000). Fair trade in Costa Rica: An impact report. University of Sussex: Economics Subject Group. Ruben, R. (2008). The impact of fair trade. Wageningen, Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  44. Ruben, R. (2008). The impact of fair trade. Wageningen, Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  45. Taylor, P. L. (2002). Poverty alleviation through participation in fair trade coffee networks: Synthesis of case study research question findings. Colorado State University: Community and Resource Development Program.Google Scholar
  46. The Star. (2009). The body shop remains upbeat despite downturn. Retrieved, from
  47. Trouiller, P., Torreele, E., Olliaro, P., White, N., Foster, S., Wirth, D., et al. (2001). Drugs for neglected diseases: A failure of the market and a public health failure? Tropical Medicine & International Health, 6, 945–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. United States Department of Agriculture. (2010). National Organic Program. Retrieved from
  49. US Department of Energy. (2008). Clothes washer product snapshot. Retrieved, from
  50. Woolcock, M. (2001). The place of social capital in understanding social and economic outcomes. Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2, 11–17.Google Scholar
  51. World Fair Trade Organization. (2009). WFTO – home. Retrieved, from
  52. World Health Organization. (2007a). 10 facts on preventing disease through healthy environments. Retrieved, from
  53. World Health Organization. (2007b). The top ten causes of death. Retrieved, from If

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations