The terms black mildew, sooty mold, and black spot have been used to some extent interchangeably. In this text the term sooty mold is restricted to those fungi living on insect exudate and hence not true parasites. Included here under Black Mildew are parasitic fungi that have a superficial dark mycelium. They are members of the Erysiphales (Meliolales according to some classifications) and hence similar to powdery mildews except for the dark color, or they belong to the Hemisphaeriales, characterized by a dark stroma simulating the upper portion of a perithecium. In a few cases the diseases are called black spot rather than mildew.