Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics

2014 Edition
| Editors: Paul B. Thompson, David M. Kaplan

Carnism

  • Martin Gibert
  • Élise Desaulniers
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0929-4_83

Synonyms

A kind of speciesism; Ideology of meat; Melanie Joy’s view on food ethics; The opposite of veganism

Introduction

Carnism refers to the ideology conditioning people to consume certain animal products. It is essentially the opposite of veganism. The term was coined by social psychologist Melanie Joy (2001). She has fully developed the concept in further papers and in her book Why We Love Dogs, Eat Pigs, and Wear Cows: An Introduction to Carnism (Joy 2010). As the title of Joy’s book suggest, people’s relation to animals depends crucially on the species to which they belong: “We love dogs and eat cows not because dogs and cows are fundamentally different – cows, like dogs, have feelings, preferences, and consciousness – but because our perception of them is different. And, consequently, our perception of their meat is different as well” (Joy 2010, p. 12).

A Descriptive Concept with a Normative Import

The primary goal of the concept of carnism is to describe a psychological fact:...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bastian, B., et al. (2012). Don’t mind meat? The denial of mind to animals used for human consumption. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(2), 247–256.Google Scholar
  2. Blum, L. (1991). Moral perception and particularity. Chicago Journals, 101(4), 701–725.Google Scholar
  3. Bratanova, B., et al. (2011). The effect of categorization as food on the perceived moral standing of animals. Appetite, 57(1), 193–196. doi:10.1016.Google Scholar
  4. Carnism Frequently Asked Questions, Carnism.com. http://www.carnism.com/index.php/faq?view=category&id=17. Visited 7 Apr 2013.
  5. Costello, K., & Hodson, G. (2012). Explaining dehumanization among children: The interspecies model of prejudice. The British Journal of Social Psychology. doi:10.1111/bjso.12016.Google Scholar
  6. Fessler, D., & Navarrete, C. (2003). Meat is good to taboo: Dietary proscriptions as a product of the interaction of psychological mechanisms and social processes. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 3(1), 1–40.Google Scholar
  7. Filippi, M., et al. (2011). The brain functional networks associated to human and animal suffering differ among omnivores, vegetarians and vegans. PLoS One, 5(5), e10847. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010847.Google Scholar
  8. Francione, G. (2007). A note about Michael Vick. http://www.abolitionistapproach.com/a-note-about-michael-vick/#.UXWfYqRX2LM
  9. Francione, G. (2012). There is nothing “Invisible” about the ideology of animal exploitation, animal rights: The abolitionist approach. http://www.abolitionistapproach.com/there-is-nothing-invisible-about-the-ideology-of-animal-exploitation/#.UWHC5Ku52Z1. Visited 7 Apr 2013.
  10. Herzog, H. (2010). Some we love, some we hate, some we eat: Why it’s so hard to think straight about animals. New York: Harpers Collins.Google Scholar
  11. Herzog, H. A., & Burghardt, G. M. (2005). The next frontier: Moral heuristics and the treatment of animals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 554–555.Google Scholar
  12. Joy, M. (2001). From carnivore to carnist: Liberating the language of meat. Satya, 8(2), 26–27.Google Scholar
  13. Joy, M. (2010). Why we love dogs, eat pigs, and wear cows: An introduction to carnism. San Francisco: Conari Press.Google Scholar
  14. Joy, M. (2011). Understanding Neocarnism: How Vegan Advocates can appreciate and respond to “Happy Meat,” Locavorism, and “Paleo Dieting”, One green planet. http://www.onegreenplanet.org/lifestyle/understanding-neocarnism/
  15. Loughnan, S., Haslam, N., & Bastian, B. (2010). The role of meat consumption in the denial of moral status and mind to meat animals. Appetite, 55(1), 156–159.Google Scholar
  16. Norcross, A. (2004). Puppies, pigs, and people: Eating meat and marginal cases. Philosophical Perspectives, 18(1), 229–245.Google Scholar
  17. Plutarch (1957). De esu carnium (On Eating Meat), Loeb Classical Library ed., Vol. XII, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press; London, W. Heinemann.Google Scholar
  18. Ruby, B. H. (2012). Vegetarianism. A blossoming field of study. Appetite, 58(1), 141–150. doi:10.1016/j.Google Scholar
  19. Ruby, B. H., & Heine, S. J. (2012). Too close to home. Factors predicting meat avoidance. Appetite, 59(1), 47–52. doi:10.1016/j.Google Scholar
  20. Sherpell, J. A. (2002). Anthropomorphism and anthropomorphic selection – Beyond the “Cute Response”. Society and Animals, 10(4), 437–454(18).Google Scholar
  21. Singer, P. (2009). Animal liberation. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  22. Slovic, P. (2007). “If I look at the mass I will never act”: Psychic numbing and genocide. Judgment and Decision Making, 2(2), 79–95.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.McGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.MontrealCanada