Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research

2014 Edition
| Editors: Alex C. Michalos

Gender Inequality and Subjective Well-Being

  • M. S. Laure RuthEmail author
  • Jaime Napier
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5_4144



Complementary Stereotyping: People generally make a distinction between agency and communality (Rosenberg, Nelson, & Vivekananthan, 1968). Gender stereotypes reflect this distinction such that men are stereotyped as being agentic but not communal, and women are stereotyped as being communal but not agentic. Because each group is considered to possess a set of strengths and weaknesses that balance those of the other group, these stereotypes are considered complementary.

Hostile Sexism: Antagonistic views toward women. Generally casts women as wanting to control men but not being as competent or able to serve in positions of power.

Benevolent Sexism: Chivalrous views toward women. Generally casts women as being more social, communal, and moral than men but undercuts women’s advancement in society because it also casts women as being weaker than men and in need of men’s protection.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyYale UniversityNew HavenUSA