Skip to main content


  • Reference work entry
  • 145 Accesses


Causal and effect indicators


Clinimetrics refers to the assessment of clinical and personal phenomena of importance to patient care, through the application of quantitative measures such as indices, scales, and inventories. The aim of clinimetrics is to ensure the human and clinical relevance of a measurement system, as well as its scientific quality.


The term clinimetrics was first coined by Feinstein (1982) to describe a new approach to ensuring the clinical validity of measures which quantify patient experiences. The introduction of this new paradigm reflected a degree of discontent with the psychometric methods traditionally used in the development of multi-item health measurement scales, in which the scores from a number of items are combined into a single summary score. Psychometric strategies rely on statistical techniques and generally aim to develop a measure which is mathematically valid and reliable, which usually means that a degree of item...

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD   6,499.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD   8,999.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Learn about institutional subscriptions


  • Fayers, P. M., Hand, D. J., Bjordal, K., & Groenvold, M. (1997). Causal indicators in quality of life research. Quality of Life Research, 6, 393–406.

    Google Scholar 

  • Feinstein, A. R. (1982). The Jones criteria and the challenge of clinimetrics. Circulation, 66, 1–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Feinstein, A. R. (1999). Multi-item “instruments” vs Virginia Apgar’s principles of clinimetrics. Archives of Internal Medicine, 159(2), 125–128.

    Google Scholar 

  • Juniper, E. F., Guyatt, G., Streiner, D. L., & King, D. R. (1997). Clinical impact versus factor analysis for quality of life questionnaire construction. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 50, 233–238.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marx, R. G., Bombardierm, C., Hogg-Johnson, S., & Wright, J. G. (1999). Clinimetric and psychometric strategies for development of a health measurement scale. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 52, 105–111.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wright, J. G., & Feinstein, A. R. (1992). A comparative contrast of clinimetric and psychometric methods for constructing indexes and rating scales. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 45, 1201–1218.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dominic Upton .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

About this entry

Cite this entry

Upton, D. (2014). Clinimetrics. In: Michalos, A.C. (eds) Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. Springer, Dordrecht.

Download citation