Skip to main content

Ways of Coping Checklist

  • Reference work entry


The Ways of Coping Checklist (Folkman & Lazarus, 1980) is a 68-item measure which describes a number of thoughts and acts (coping strategies) a person may use to cope with a threatening situation.


Coping was a topic that stimulated a lot of interest in psychological research during the 1960s’ and 1970s’. Folkman and Lazarus (1980) recognized the need for further systematic work in order to understand how coping could operate as a mediator between stress and psychosocial well-being. The coping measurement was also an issue of great importance. These authors did not conceptualize coping as a defensive ego process or as a personality stable trait. They conceptualized coping as a situation-specific concept, namely, as specific thoughts and acts an individual uses to cope with distress when a stressful life event occurs.

Folkman and Lazarus (1980) developed a checklist consisting of “items from the domains of defensive coping (e.g., avoidance, intellectualization,...

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD   6,499.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD   8,999.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Learn about institutional subscriptions


  • Cousson, F., Bruchon-Schweitzer, M., Quintard, B., & Nuissier, J. (1996). Analyse multidimensionnelle d’une Õchelle de coping: validation franÓaise de la W.C.C. (Ways of Coping Checklist). Psychologie Française, 41(2), 155–164.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cousson-Gélie, F., Cosnefroy, O., Christophe, V., Segrestan-Crouzet, C., Merckaert, I., Fournier, E., et al. (2010). The ways of coping checklist (WCC): Validation in French-speaking cancer patients. Journal of Health Psychology, 15(8), 1246–1256.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dunkel-Schetter, C., Feinstein, L. G., Taylor, S. E., & Falke, R. L. (1992). Patterns of coping with cancer. Health Psychology, 11, 79–87.

    Google Scholar 

  • Endler, N. S., & Parker, S. (1990). Multidimensional assessment o coping: A critical evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 844–854.

    Google Scholar 

  • Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. (1980). An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21, 219–239.

    Google Scholar 

  • Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. (1985). If it changes it must be a process: A study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 150–170.

    Google Scholar 

  • Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. (1986). Stress processes and depressive symptomatology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95(2), 107–113.

    Google Scholar 

  • Folkman, S., Lazarus, R., Dunkel-Schetter, C., DeLongis, A., & Gruen, R. J. (1986). Dynamics of stressful encounter: Cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(5), 992–1003.

    Google Scholar 

  • Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1988). Manual for the ways of coping questionnaire. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Neacsiu, A. D., Rizvi, S. L., Vitaliano, P. P., Lynch, T. R., & Linehan, M. (2010). The dialectical behavior therapy ways of coping checklist: Development and psychometric properties. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66(6), 1–20.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parker, D. A., & Endler, N. S. (1992). Coping with coping assessment: A critical review. European Journal of Psychology, 6, 321–344.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sawang, S., Oei, T. P. S., Goh, Y. W., Mansoer, W., Markhum, E., & Ranawake, D. (2010). The ways of coping checklist revision-Asian version (WCCL-ASIAN): A new factor structure with confirmatory factor analysis. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 59(2), 202–219.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skinner, E. A., Edge, K., Atman, J., & Sherwood, H. (2003). Searching for the structure of coping: A review and critique of category systems for classifying ways of coping. Psychological Bulletin, 129(2), 216–269.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vitaliano, P. P., Rousso, J., Carr, J., Maiuro, R. D., & Becker, J. (1985). The ways of coping checklist: Revision and psychometric properties. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 20, 3–26.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Filippa Kolokotroni .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

About this entry

Cite this entry

Kolokotroni, F. (2014). Ways of Coping Checklist. In: Michalos, A.C. (eds) Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. Springer, Dordrecht.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht

  • Print ISBN: 978-94-007-0752-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-94-007-0753-5

  • eBook Packages: Humanities, Social Sciences and Law