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Type II Errors

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Synonyms

Errors of the second kind; Hypothesis testing error; Type I error

Definition

A Type II error is an incorrect conclusion drawn from a Null Hypothesis Significance Test (NHST) (Aron & Aron, 2003). Also known as a “false negative,” a Type II error is concluding that a random effect did occur, when in fact it did not. Technically, a Type II error is incorrectly accepting a false null hypothesis, or saying there was no effect when, in fact, there was. Type II error, also known as beta error, is most closely associated with the power of a study (i.e., its ability to detect a significant effect if a significant effect is present). The more power a study has, the lower its Type II error rate. Ideally, the Type II error rate should be 0.20 or below (Hurlburt, 2003).

While Type I and Type II errors are inversely related (as one reduces the risk of making a Type I error, the probability of making a Type II error increases), their relationship is not direct because other factors affect...

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References

  • Aron, A., & Aron, E. N. (2003). Statistics for psychology (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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  • Hurlburt, R. T. (2003). Comprehending behavioral statistics (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

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  • Sheskin, D. (2004). Handbook of parametric and nonparametric statistical procedures. Baco Raton: CRC Press.

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Correspondence to Ralph L. Piedmont .

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© 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

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Piedmont, R.L. (2014). Type II Errors. In: Michalos, A.C. (eds) Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5_3073

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