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Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)

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Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research

Definition

Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) is the most frequently used self-report instrument assessing positive and negative affect.

Description

The questionnaire measures two general dimensions, positive and negative affect. Positive affect (PA) reflects the extent to which a person feels active, enthusiastic, and alert. High PA is a state of high energy, concentration, and experiencing pleasure, whereas low PA is characterized by sadness and lethargy (Watson et al., 1988). Negative affect (NA) is a state of general distress and unpleasurable engagement, with low NA reflecting calmness and serenity.

There are two versions of the questionnaire: a 60-item version (PANAS-X) and a brief 20-item scale. Respondents rate how they are feeling for each adjective on a 5-point Likert-type scaleranging from 1 (very slightly) to 5 (extremely). The high extreme of each dimension indicates the experience of affect, while the low end represents a lack...

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References

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Correspondence to Ingrid Brdar .

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Brdar, I. (2014). Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). In: Michalos, A.C. (eds) Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5_2212

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5_2212

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