Negative stereotypes are traits and characteristics, negatively valenced and attributed to a social group and to its individual members.
From an etymological point of view, the term stereotype refers to a rigid and stable model. In printing activities, it represents a duplicate, fixed copy of a typographic element. These aspects of fixity and replicability inspired Walter Lippmann (1922) in applying the term stereotype to the field of social perception and, in particular, to the mental images that are generally referred to a social group. In the following years, the concept was defined in a more precise way and progressively lost its stability feature. In particular, social cognition considered stereotypes as characteristics of a group included in its mental representation. Thus, stereotypes are stored in individual memory and often endorsed automatically to group members, but they could also be changed and abandoned.
According to social cognition (Devine, 1989;...
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
Crisp, R. J., & Hewstone, M. (2007). Multiple social categorization. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 39, pp. 163–254). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
Devine, P. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 5–18.
Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (1991). Social cognition (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Galinsky, A. D., & Moskowitz, G. B. (2000). Perspective-taking: Decreasing stereotype expression, stereotype accessibility, and in-group favoritism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 708–724.
Hewstone, M., Rubin, M., & Willis, H. (2002). Intergroup bias. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 575–604.
Lepore, L., & Brown, R. (1997). Category and stereotype activation: Is prejudice inevitable? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 275–287.
Lippmann, W. (1922). Public opinion. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
Massey, D. S. (2004). Segregation and stratification: A biosocial perspective. Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 1, 7–25.
Mays, V. M., Cochran, S. D., & Barnes, N. W. (2007). Race, race-based discrimination, and health outcomes among African Americans. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 201–225.
Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 751–783.
Sibley, C. G., & Duckitt, J. (2008). Personality and prejudice: A meta-analysis and theoretical review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 12, 248–279.
Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797–811.
Editors and Affiliations
© 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
About this entry
Cite this entry
Voci, A. (2014). Negative Stereotypes. In: Michalos, A.C. (eds) Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5_1926
Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht
Print ISBN: 978-94-007-0752-8
Online ISBN: 978-94-007-0753-5