Advertisement

The Wetland Book pp 1533-1544 | Cite as

South African Wetlands: Classification of Ecosystem Types

  • Dean J. Ollis
  • Jennifer A. Day
  • Namhla Mbona
  • John A. Dini
Reference work entry

Abstract

This article describes the classification of marine, estuarine, and inland aquatic ecosystems, including but not restricted to “true” wetlands as per the narrow definition (as in the South African National Water Act) and discusses recent developments in the classification of aquatic ecosystems in South Africa. Marine, estuarine and inland aquatic ecosystems tend to be dealt with separately in South Africa; it is thus not surprising that separate classification systems have been independently developed in the country for these broad groups of aquatic ecosystems. Significant progress has been made in the classification of marine, estuarine and inland aquatic ecosystems in South Africa, especially in the past ten years. Much of this advancement has been spurred on by national biodiversity assessments and the rollout of a number of regional systematic conservation planning initiatives across the country. One of the biggest challenges, and opportunities, that has arisen out of the independent development of separate classification systems for marine, estuarine and inland aquatic ecosystems in South Africa over the past few years is the possibility of developing an integrated classification system for all aquatic ecosystems in the country.

Keywords

Classification Typing South Africa Aquatic ecosystems 

References

  1. Brinson MM. A hydrogeomorphic classification for wetlands. Technical Report WRP-DE-4. Vicksburg, Massachusetts: US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station; 1993.Google Scholar
  2. Cowardin LM, Carter V, Golet FC, LaRoe ET. Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States. FWS-OBS-79-31. Washington, DC: US Fish and Wildlife Service; 1979.Google Scholar
  3. Ewart-Smith JL, Ollis DJ, Day JA, Malanwzm HL. National Wetland Inventory: Development of a Wetland Classification System for South Africa. WRC Report No. KV 174/06. Pretoria: Water Research Commission; 2006. Available: http://www.wrc.org.za/Pages/KnowledgeHub.aspx.
  4. Kotze DC, Marneweck GC, Batchelor AL, Lindley DS,Collins NB. WET-EcoServices: A technique for rapidly assessing ecosystem services supplied by wetlands. WRC Report No. TT 339/09. Pretoria: Water Research Commission; 2007. Available: http://www.wrc.org.za/Pages/KnowledgeHub.aspx.
  5. Kotze DC, Ellery WN, Macfarlane DM, Jewitt GPW. A rapid assessment method for coupling anthropogenic stressors and wetland ecological condition. Ecol Indic. 2012;13:284–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Macfarlane DM, Kotze DC, Ellery WN, Walters D, Koopman V, Goodman P, Goge C. WET-Health: A technique for rapidly assessing wetland health. WRC Report No. TT 340/08. Pretoria: Water Research Commission; 2007. Available: http://www.wrc.org.za/Pages/KnowledgeHub.aspx.
  7. Mucina L, Rutherford MC, editors. The Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Pretoria: South African National Biodiversity Institute; 2006.Google Scholar
  8. Nel JL, Driver A. South African National Biodiversity Assessment 2011: Technical Report. Volume 2: Freshwater Component. CSIR Report Number CSIR/NRE/ECO/IR/2012/0022/A. Stellenbosch: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research; 2012. Available: http://bgis.sanbi.org/nba/NBA2011_TechnicalReport_Vol2Freshwater.pdf.
  9. Nel JL, Murray KM, Maherry AM, Petersen CP, Roux DJ, Driver A, Hill L, Van Deventer H, Funke N, Swartz ER, Smith-Adao LB, Mbona N, Downsborough L, Nienaber S. Technical Report for the Freshwater Ecosystem Priority Areas Project. WRC Report No. 1801/2/11. Pretoria: Water Research Commission; 2011. Available: http://bgis.sanbi.org/nfepa/NFEPA_Technical_Report.pdf.
  10. Ollis DJ, Snaddon CD, Job NM, Mbona N. Classification System for Wetlands and other Aquatic Ecosystems in South Africa. User Manual: Inland Systems. SANBI Biodiversity Series 22. Pretoria: South African National Biodiversity Institute; 2013 .Available: http://www.sanbi.org/sites/default/files/documents/documents/sanbi-biodiversity-series-wetlands-classification-no-22.pdf Google Scholar
  11. Ollis DJ, Ewart-Smith JL, Day JA, Job NM, Macfarlane DM, Snaddon CD, Sieben EJJ, Dini JA, Mbona N. The development of a classification system for inland aquatic ecosystems in South Africa. Water SA 2015; 41(5): 727–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Republic of South Africa. National Water Act. Act No. 36 of 1998. Pretoria: Republic of South Africa; 1998. Available: http://www.gov.za/documents/download.php?f=70693.
  13. SANBI. Further Development of a Proposed National Wetland Classification System for South Africa. Primary Project Report. Prepared by the Freshwater Consulting Group (FCG) for the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI); 2009. Available: http://bgis.sanbi.org/nwi/wetland_classification.pdf.
  14. Sink K, Holness S, Harris L, Majiedt P, Atkinson L, Robinson T, Kirkman S, Hutchings L, Leslie R, Lamberth S, Kerwath S, von der Heyden S, Lombard A, Attwood C, Branch G, Fairweather T, Taljaard S, Weerts S, Cowley P, Awad A, Halpern B, Grantham H, Wolf T. National Biodiversity Assessment 2011: Technical Report. Volume 4: Marine and Coastal Component. Pretoria: South African National Biodiversity Institute; 2012. Available: http://bgis.sanbi.org/nba/NBA2011_TechnicalReport_Vol2Freshwater.pdf.
  15. Turpie JK. South African National Spatial Biodiversity Assessment 2004. Technical Report, Volume 3: Estuary Component. Pretoria: South African National Biodiversity Institute; 2005. Available: http://bgis.sanbi.org/nsba/NSBA_Vol3_Estuary.pdf.
  16. Van Niekerk L, Turpie JK, editors.. South African National Biodiversity Assessment 2011: Technical Report. Volume 3: Estuary Component. CSIR Report Number CSIR/NRE/ECOS/ER/2011/0045/B. Stellenbosch: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research; 2012. Available: http://bgis.sanbi.org/nba/NBA2011_TechnicalReport_Vol3Estuary.pdf.
  17. Whitfield AK. A characterization of southern African estuarine systems. South Afr J Aquat Sci. 1992;18(1/2):89–103.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dean J. Ollis
    • 1
  • Jennifer A. Day
    • 2
  • Namhla Mbona
    • 3
  • John A. Dini
    • 3
  1. 1.Freshwater Research CentreCape TownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Freshwater Research, Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa
  3. 3.South African National Biodiversity InstitutePretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations