The Wetland Book pp 1965-1975 | Cite as

Wetland Restoration and Creation: An Overview

Reference work entry

Abstract

Despite providing 40% of the global annual renewable ecosystem services generated on the planet, while only occupying ~3% of the emerged surface of the Earth, more than 50% of the world’s wetland ecosystems have been heavily modified or destroyed by humans since the early twentieth century. The recognition of their importance for provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting ecosystem services, and the highest value for restoration investment of all ecosystems has also led to many attempts at restoration, supported by global commitments for ecosystem restoration. Frequently, however, attempts at wetland restoration fail to restore ecosystem structure and functions to preimpact levels, and the research and practice to improve results are of major interest across three major categories of wetland restoration projects: (1) highly artificial systems receiving high inputs of energy and focused on optimizing the delivery of one or a few ecosystem services to society, which are usually referred to as “constructed wetlands”; (2) creating new wetlands in a location where there were no wetlands and allowing spontaneous ecological succession. These are referred to as “created wetlands” for usually multifunctionality; and (3) assisting wetlands to recover from impacts following with minimal intervention and maintenance, usually referred as “restored wetlands.” Improving practice and understanding of wetland restoration is an ongoing need that depends not only on technical knowhow but a greater socioeconomic perspective and involvement of local communities. Such a multidisciplinary approach to wetland restoration and creation is likely to be of one of increased focus in the future and bring greater ecological and societal benefits.

Keywords

Constructed wetlands Created wetlands Restored wetlands Ecosystem services Stakeholders Multidisciplinary 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Basque Centre for Climate Change – BC3LeioaSpain

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