The Wetland Book pp 1935-1942 | Cite as

Capacity Development for Wetland Management

  • Ingrid Gevers
  • Esther M. J. Koopmanschap
  • Kenneth Irvine
  • C. Max Finlayson
  • Anne A. van Dam
Reference work entry


Despite increasing awareness of the importance of wetland ecosystem services and an increase in the number of countries with policies aimed at preventing degradation and destruction of wetlands, effective protection and restoration is often constrained by the limited capacity of governmental and non-governmental organizations responsible for wetland management. This article defines capacity development in terms of the knowledge, skills and attitudes of people, and highlights the levels at which capacity development takes place: individual, organisational and institutional. Capacity development is presented as a long-term, integrated process of collaborative and experiential learning by all stakeholders. A number of structured steps in the capacity development process is outlined: assessment, during which gaps in capacity are identified; vision development, which describes the future goal of the capacity development effort; strategy development, which focuses on the specific interventions needed to achieve the vision; action planning and implementation; evaluation of impact, sustainability, relevance and effectiveness; and monitoring of the progress made. The article concludes with some recent examples of wetland capacity development initiatives.


Capacity development Wetland management Wise use Stakeholder participation Experiential learning 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wageningen Centre for Development InnovationWageningen University and ResearchWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.UNESCO-IHE, Institute for Water EducationDelftThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Institute for Land, Water and SocietyCharles Sturt UniversityAlburyAustralia
  4. 4.Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Aquatic Ecosystems Group, Department of Water Science and Engineering, UNESCO-IHE, Institue for Water EducationDelftThe Netherlands

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