The Wetland Book pp 1917-1922 | Cite as

Stakeholder Participation in Management Planning

  • Paul Goriup
Reference work entry


Stakeholder involvement is fundamental to preparing and implementing wetland management plans. Stakeholders are persons, groups, or organizations with an interest in a particular area, through direct involvement or because they have influence on management outcomes. Formal and informal communication and dialogue tools are used to identify, approach, and engage stakeholders. The first step, stakeholder analysis, is to find out who they are and what roles they play. Key or core stakeholders have a direct decision-making role such as government bodies, land owners, tenants, and community leaders. Influential stakeholders are or may be affected by management of the site and can exert pressure on the preparation and implementation of the plan (e.g., local businesses, fishermen, hunters, farmers, environmental NGOs, and research institutes). Interested stakeholders have some involvement with the site, usually for educational or recreational purposes. Stakeholder analysis also means providing stakeholders with information about the management process and their participation. Engagement of stakeholders usually involves an iterative process between those preparing the plan and the stakeholders. The process usually consists of formal workshops which address all aspects of the management process, or more informal meetings and other forms of communication. Addressing conflicts and conflict resolution are important parts of the stakeholder participation process. Permanent participation of stakeholders in management can take the form of a formalized consultative representative body or multistakeholder management bodies where key stakeholders take direct responsibility for site management.


Adaptive management planning Conflict resolution Multi-stakeholder management Natura 2000 network Stakeholder analysis Stakeholder categories Stakeholder engagement Stakeholder participation 


  1. European Union. Council directive 2009/147/EC on the conservation of wild birds. Off J Eur Union. 2010; L 20/7. Available at:
  2. European Union. Council directive 92/43/EEC on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora. Off J Eur Union. 1992; L 206/7. Available at:

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fieldfare International Ecological DevelopmentNewburyUK

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