The Wetland Book pp 1453-1457 | Cite as

Supporting Services: A Summary

  • Mark Everard
Reference work entry


Supporting services comprise services internal to ecosystems, maintaining their integrity, functioning, and resilience including their capacity to produce other more directly exploited ecosystem services (provisioning, regulatory, and cultural services). They relate to processes and functions within ecosystems which, though of fundamental importance, generally have no associated market values and have historically been overlooked in economic analyses and management. Recognizing, valuing (generally in nonmonetary terms), and incorporating these vital services into wetland management are vital for system integrity and health.


Supporting services Photosynthesis Soil formation Habitat Resilience Functioning Cycling Integrity 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Water Security NetworkUniversity of the West of EnglandBristolUK

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