The Wetland Book pp 1181-1184 | Cite as

Local Climate Regulation by Urban Wetlands

  • Robert J. McInnes
Reference work entry


Urban areas are composed of built structures, such as buildings and roads, and naturalistic areas, such as parks and rivers, which create local-scale climatic regimes. Within the urban environment, these various elements can combine to modify significantly the fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum and further alter atmospheric processes through anthropogenic inputs of heat, water, and pollutants. The creation and management of wetlands within urban areas can help to modify local climate and to decrease air temperatures.


Climate regulation Urban heat islands Heat fluxes Water sensitive urban design 


  1. Bolund P, Hunhammer S. Ecosystem services in urban areas. Ecol Econ. 1999;29:293–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ca VT, Asaeda T, Abu EM. Reductions in air conditioning energy caused by a nearby park. Energy Build. 1998;29:83–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Coutts AM, Tapper NJ, Beringer J, Loughnan M, Demuzere M. Watering our cities: The capacity for Water Sensitive Urban Design to support urban cooling and improve human thermal comfort in the Australian context. Prog Phys Geogr. 2013;37(1):2–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Grimmond CS, Oke TR. Evapotranspiration rates in urban areas. IAHS Publications. 1999;259:235–43.Google Scholar
  5. Haines A, Kovats RS, Campbell-Lendrum D, Corvalan C. Climate change and human health: impacts, vulnerability and mitigation. Lancet. 2006;367:2101–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. McPherson EG. Cooling urban heat islands with sustainable landscapes. In: Platt RH, Rowntree RA, Muick PC, editors. The ecological city, preserving and restoring urban biodiversity. Boston: University of Massachusetts Press; 1994. p. 151–71.Google Scholar
  7. Sun R, Chen A, Chen L, Lü Y. Cooling effects of wetlands in an urban region: The case of Beijing. Ecol Indic. 2012;20:57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Taha H. Urban climates and heat islands: albedo, evapotranspiration and anthropogenic heat. Energy Build. 1997;25:99–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Tong H, Walton A, Sang J, Chan JC. Numerical simulation of the boundary layer over the complex terrain of Hong Kong. Atmos Environ. 2005:3549–63.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.RM Wetlands and Environment LtdLittleworthUK

Personalised recommendations