North America Transnational Legal Frameworks

  • Alicia Cate
Reference work entry


There are a number of legal frameworks that directly or indirectly affect wetlands management in North America. All are designed to promote transnational cooperation to protect, conserve, and manage wetlands. These legal frameworks include regional agreements that encompass the three countries of North America (Canada, Mexico, and the United States), as well as bilateral agreements between Canada and the United States and the United States and Mexico in relation to transboundary waters.


Legal frameworks Transnational Multilateral Bilateral North America 


  1. Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). About the CEC. 2014a. Available at
  2. Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). North America blue carbon scoping study. 2014b. Available at
  3. EPA. Wetlands – status and trends. 2014. Available at
  4. Erwin KL. Wetlands and global climate change: the role of wetland restoration in a changing world. Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008, Available at
  5. International Boundary & Water Commission (IBWC). Treaty. 1944. Available at
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  8. International Boundary & Water Commission (IBWC). About us. 2014b. Available at
  9. International Joint Commission (IJC). 15th biennial report on Great Lakes water quality. 2011. Available at
  10. International Joint Commission (IJC). Guiding principles. 2014a. Available at
  11. International Joint Commission (IJC). IJC mission and mandates. 2014b. Available at
  12. International Joint Commission (IJC), Boundary Waters Treaty (BWT). 1909. Available at
  13. International Joint Commission (IJC), Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA). 2012. Available at
  14. National Geographic, Water Currents. The U.S. and Mexico partner to save the Colorado River Delta. 2014. Available at
  15. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). National Marine Fisheries Service, habitat conservation, coastal blue carbon. 2014. Available at
  16. Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR). Final text of the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). 1994. Available at March 2014.
  17. Pacific Coast Joint Venture. 2014. Available at
  18. Rio Grande Joint Venture. 2014. Available at
  19. Sonoran Joint Venture. 2014. Available at
  20. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS). Division of bird habitat conservation, joint venture map. 2014a. Available at
  21. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS). Division of bird habitat conservation, joint venture directory. 2014b. Available at

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.US Department of StateWashingtonUSA

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