Transnational and Regional Legal Frameworks

  • Sacha Kathuria
  • Kirk W. Junker
Reference work entry


Wetlands are governed not only by domestic law, but by transnational and regional legal frameworks as well. These transnational and regional legal tools should be considered as part of the overall legal regime for wetlands. Sometimes domestic wetlands law exists in order to comply with transnational or regional agreements. This article sets out to describe transnational sources of law and the nature of global problems that they are meant to remedy. After identifying these sources of law are, important examples are provided. As in other areas of international law, custom and principle also provide important sources of law for protecting and maintaining wetlands.


Transnational Regional Framework Convention International Environmental 


  1. Aust A. Handbook of international law. 2nd ed. Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge University Press; 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bodansky D. The framework convention/protocol approach, WHO/NCD/TFI/99.1, 15, as cited by Matz-Lueck N, Framework conventions as a regulatory tool, Goettingen J Int Law. 2009;1(3):439–58, 439. See also, Schoebener B, editor, Grundbegriffe des Voelkerrechts. C. F. Mueller; 2013.Google Scholar
  3. Bowman MJ. International treaties and the global protection of birds: part 1. J Environ Law. 1999;11(1):87–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brierly JL. The law of nations. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1963.Google Scholar
  5. Convention on Biological Diversity, June 5, 1992, 1760 U.N.T.S. 79 (entered into force Dec. 29, 1993).Google Scholar
  6. Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, June 23, 1979, 19 I.L.M. 15, 1651 U.N.T.S. 28.Google Scholar
  7. Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, Feb. 2, 1971, T.I.A.S. No. ___, 996 U.N.T.S. 245, reprinted in 11 I.L.M. 963 (1972).Google Scholar
  8. Guruswamy L. International environmental law. St Paul: Thompson West; 2007.Google Scholar
  9. Jessup PC. A modern law of nations. New York: MacMillan; 1959.Google Scholar
  10. Matz-Lueck N. Framework conventions as a regulatory tool. Goettingen J Int Law. 2009;1(3):439–58.Google Scholar
  11. McCaffrey SC. Understanding international law. Newark: Lexis Nexis; 2006.Google Scholar
  12. OECD. Regional trade agreements. OECD. Accessed 17 Nov 2016.
  13. Ramsar Convention Secretariat, 2013. The Ramsar Convention Manual: a guide to the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971), p64, 6th ed. Ramsar Convention Secretariat, Gland, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  14. Ramsar Convention Secretariat, 2013. The Ramsar Convention Manual: a guide to the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) p.49, 6th ed. Ramsar Convention Secretariat, Gland, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  15. Ramsar Introductory Brochure. 3rd ed. 2008. Accessed 17 Nov 2016.
  16. Yearbook of the International Law Commission (1950-II), 368–72.Google Scholar
  17. United Nations, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 23 May 1969, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1155, p. 331, available at: [accessed 17 November 2016]
  18. United Nations, Statute of the International Court of Justice, 18 April 1946, available at: [accessed 17 November 2016] .

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.McKenna School of Business, Economics, and GovernmentSaint Vincent CollegeLatrobeUSA
  2. 2.University of Cologne, Faculty of LawCologneGermany

Personalised recommendations