Adolescence and Well-Being

  • Rita Žukauskienė


The well-being of adolescents has been shown to be related both to individual and contextual factors. Mental and physical well-being during adolescence has been shown to be integrally shaped by the daily contexts in which children grow and develop, including differences that exist between developing and developed nations. The self-concept is regarded as both a risk factor influencing social functioning and behavior problems during adolescence contributing to different kinds of mental health problems and a protective factor that impedes psychological problems and promotes general well-being. Body dissatisfaction is highly prevalent among adolescents and is considered as a risk factor for subsequent lower self-esteem, decreased psychological well-being, and increased eating disorder symptomatology, dieting behaviors, obesity, and depression. Research generally supports the view that secure attachments with parents in infancy, childhood, and adolescence are linked with positive representations of the self, including high levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy. The presence of significant nonparental adults appears to be associated with higher levels of youth self-esteem among diverse samples of adolescents and also with lower levels of behavioral and emotional problems among youth. Peer behaviors as well as the quality of the relationships that youth have with their peers have been shown to be important correlates of a wide range of adolescent outcomes including psychological, social, and academic functioning and well-being. Substantial research on the relationship between Internet use and psychological well-being has yielded mixed findings. While some studies found that daily Internet use was associated with lower well-being, other studies found contradicting evidence. Psychosocial problems and negative moods are also demonstrated in those who are cyberbullied.


Body Image Eating Disorder Body Dissatisfaction Psychological Control Corporal Punishment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Allen, J. P., Hauser, S. T., Bell, K. L., & O'Connor, T. G. (1994). Longitudinal assessment of autonomy and relatedness in adolescent-family interactions as predictors of adolescent ego development and self-esteem. Child Development, 65, 179–194.Google Scholar
  2. Amato, P. R., & Ochiltree, G. (1986). Family resources and the development of child competence. Journal of Marriage and Family, 48, 47–56.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, A. E., & DiDomenico, L. (1992). Diet vs. shape content of popular male and female magazines: A dose–response relationship to the incidence of eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11, 238–287.Google Scholar
  4. Andrews, A., Ben-Arieh, A., Carlson, M., Damon, W., Dweck, C., Earls, F., Garcia-Coll, C., Gold, R., Halfon, N., Hart, R., Lerner, R. M., McEwen, B., Meaney, M., Offord, D., Patrick, D., Peck, M., Trickett, B., Weisner, T., Zuckerman, B., & Ecology Working Group. (2002). Ecology of child well-being: Advancing the science and the science-practice link. Georgia: Centre for Child Well-Being.Google Scholar
  5. Armsden, G. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427–451.Google Scholar
  6. Attar-Schwartz, S., Tan, J.-P., Buchanan, A., Flouri, E., & Griggs, J. (2009). Grandparenting and adolescent adjustment in two-parent biological, lone-parent, and step-families. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(1), 67–75.Google Scholar
  7. Banfield, S. S., & McCabe, M. P. (2002). An evaluation of the construct of body image. Adolescence, 37(146), 373–393.Google Scholar
  8. Barber, B. K., & Harmon, E. (2002). Violating the self: Parental psychological control of children and adolescents. In B. Barber (Ed.), Intrusive parenting: How psychological control affects children and adolescents (pp. 15–53). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  9. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529.Google Scholar
  10. Baumeister, R. F., Smart, L., & Boden, J. (1996). Relation of threatened egotism to violence and aggression: The dark side of self-esteem. Psychological Review, 103, 5–33.Google Scholar
  11. Baumrind, D. (2005). Patterns of parental authority and adolescent autonomy. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 108, 61–69.Google Scholar
  12. Beam, M. R., Chen, C., & Greenberger, E. (2002). The nature of adolescents’ relationships with their “very important” nonparental adults. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 305–325.Google Scholar
  13. Bean, R. A., Bush, K. R., McKenry, P. C., & Wilson, S. M. (2003). The impact of parental support, behavioral control, and psychological control on the academic achievement and self-esteem of African American and European American adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18, 523–541.Google Scholar
  14. Becker, H. J. (2000). Who’s wired and who’s not: Children’s access to and use of computer technology. The Future of Children, 10, 44–75.Google Scholar
  15. Bergman, L. R. (2001). A person approach in reseach on adolescence. Some methodological challenges. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16(1), 28–53.Google Scholar
  16. Block, J., & Robins, R. (1993). A longitudinal study of consistency and change in self-esteem from early adolescence to early adulthood. Child Development, 64, 909–923.Google Scholar
  17. Brewster, A. B., & Bowen, G. L. (2004). Teacher support and the school engagement of Latino middle and high school students at risk for failure. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 21, 47–67.Google Scholar
  18. Bryan, J. W., & Freed, F. W. (1982). Corporal punishment: Normative data and sociological and psychological correlates in a community college population. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 11, 77–87.Google Scholar
  19. Buchanan, A., Ten Brinke, J., & Flouri, E. (2000). Parental background, social disadvantage, public ‘care’, and psychological problems in adolescence and adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1415–1423.Google Scholar
  20. Call, K. T., Riedel, A. A., Hein, K., McLoyd, V., Peterson, A., & Kipke, M. (2002). Adolescent health and well-being in the twenty-first century: A global perspective. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12(1), 69–98.Google Scholar
  21. Carvajal, S. C., Clair, S. D., Nash, S. G., & Evans, R. I. (1998). Relating optimism, hope and self-esteem to social influences in deterring substance use. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 17, 443–465.Google Scholar
  22. Cash, T. F. (1999). The management of body image problems. In C. G. Fairburn & K. D. Brownell (Eds.), Eating disorders and obesity (2nd ed., pp. 599–603). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  23. Cok, F. (1990). Body image satisfaction in Turkish adolescents. Adolescence, 25, 409–412.Google Scholar
  24. Colarossi, L. G., & Eccles, J. S. (2003). Differential effects of support providers on adolescents’ mental health. Social Work Research, 27(1), 19–30.Google Scholar
  25. Conger, K. J., Conger, R. D., & Scaramella, L. V. (1997). Parents, siblings, and psychological control, and adolescent adjustment. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12, 113–138.Google Scholar
  26. Conger, K. J., Reuter, M. A., & Conger, R. D. (2000). The role of economic pressure in the lives of parents and their adolescents: The family stress model. In L. J. Crockett & R. J. Silbereisen (Eds.), Negotiating adolescence in times of social change (pp. 201–223). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Conley, C. S., & Rudolph, K. D. (2009). The emerging sex difference in adolescent depression: Interacting contributions of puberty and peer stress. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 593–620.Google Scholar
  28. Dahl, R. E. (2004). Adolescent brain development: A period of vulnerabilities and opportunities. Keynote address. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 1–22.Google Scholar
  29. De Haan, L. G., & MacDermid, S. M. (1999). Identity development as a mediating factor between urban poverty and behavioral outcomes for junior high school students. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 20(2), 123–148.Google Scholar
  30. Dietz, W. H. (1998). Health consequences of obesity in youth: Childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics, 101, 518–525.Google Scholar
  31. Dmitrieva, J., Chen, C., Greenberger, E., & Gil- Rivas, V. (2004). Family relationships and adolescent psychosocial outcomes: Converging findings from eastern and western cultures. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 14, 425–447.Google Scholar
  32. Donnellan, B., Trzesniewski, K., Robins, R., Moffitt, T., & Caspi, A. (2005). Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. Psychological Science, 16, 328–335.Google Scholar
  33. Dougherty, L. R. (2006). Children’s emotionality and social status: A meta-analytic review. Social Development, 15, 394–417.Google Scholar
  34. Doyle, A. B., & Markiewicz, D. (2005). Parenting, marital conflict and adjustment from early- to midadolescence: Mediated by adolescent attachment style? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 97–110.Google Scholar
  35. Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  36. Europe in figures. Eurostat yearbook 2009. Retrieved March 11, 2011, from
  37. Finkenauer, C., Engels, R. C. M. E., & Baumeister, R. F. (2005). Parenting behavior and adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: The role of self-control. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29, 58–69.Google Scholar
  38. Flouri, E., & Buchanan, A. (2003). The role of mother involvement and father involvement in adolescent bullying behavior. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 634–644.Google Scholar
  39. Ge, X., Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H., Jr. (1996). Coming of age too early: Pubertal influences on girls’ vulnerability to psychological distress. Child Development, 67, 3386–3400.Google Scholar
  40. Ge, X., Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H., Jr. (2001). Pubertal transition, stressful life events, and the emergence of gender differences in depressive symptoms. Developmental Psychology, 37, 404–417.Google Scholar
  41. Gecas, V., & Schwalbe, M. L. (1986). Parental behavior and adolescents’ self-esteem. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1, 37–46.Google Scholar
  42. Gershoff, E. T. (2002). Parental corporal punishment and associated child behaviors and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 539–579.Google Scholar
  43. Gilbert, P. (1992). Depression: The evolution of powerlessness. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  44. Graber, J. A., Lewinsohn, P. M., Seeley, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1997). Is psychopathology associated with the timing of pubertal development? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1768–1776.Google Scholar
  45. Grant, K., Lyons, A., Landis, D., Cho, M., Scudiero, M., Reynolds, L., Murphy, J., & Bryant, H. (1999). Gender, body image, and depressive symptoms among low-income African American adolescents. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 299–316.Google Scholar
  46. Greenberger, E., Chen, C., & Beam, M. R. (1998). The role of “very important” non-parental adults in adolescent development. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27, 321–343.Google Scholar
  47. Gross, E. F., Juvonen, J., & Gable, S. L. (2002). Internet use and well-being in adolescence. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 75–90.Google Scholar
  48. Guaze, C., Bukowski, W. M., Aquan-Assee, J., & Sippola, L. K. (1996). Interactions between family environment and friendship and associations with self-perceived well-being during early adolescence. Child Development, 67, 2201–2216.Google Scholar
  49. Halldórsson, M., Kunst, A. E., Köhler, L., & Mackenbach, J. P. (2000). Socioeconomic inequalities in the health of children and adolescents – A comparative study of the five Nordic countries. European Journal of Public Health, 10(4), 281–288.Google Scholar
  50. Harter, S. (1990). Causes, correlates, and the functional role of global self-worth: A lifespan perspective. In J. Kolligian & R. Sternberg (Eds.), Perceptions of competence and incompetence across the lifespan (pp. 67–98). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Harter, S. (1993). Causes and consequences of low selfesteem in children and adolescents. In R. F. Baumeister (Ed.), Self-esteem: The puzzle of low self-regard (pp. 87–116). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  52. Hartup, W. W. (1996). The company they keep: Friendships and their developmental significance. Child Development, 67, 1–13.Google Scholar
  53. Hawker, D. S. J., & Boulton, M. J. (2000). Twenty years’ research on peer victimization and psychsocial maladjustment: A meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 441–455.Google Scholar
  54. Heinberg, L. J., & Thompson, J. K. (1995). Body image and televised images of thinness and attractiveness: A controlled laboratory investigation. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 14(4), 325–338.Google Scholar
  55. Howard, M. S., & Medway, F. J. (2004). Adolescents' attachment and coping with stress. Psychology in the Schools, 41, 391–402.Google Scholar
  56. Hunt, J. (2001). Kinship care, child protection and the courts. In B. Broad (Ed.), Kinship care: The placement choice for children and young people (pp. 29–37). Dorset: Russell House Publishing.Google Scholar
  57. Kalil, A., & Ziol-Guest, K. M. (2008). Teacher support, school goal structures, and teenage mothers’ school engagement. Youth & Society, 39, 524–548.Google Scholar
  58. Kaltiala-Heino, R., Rimpelä, M., Rantanen, P., & Laippala, P. (2001). Adolescent depression: The role of discontinuities in life course and social support. Journal of Affective Disorders, 64, 155–166.Google Scholar
  59. Katzer, C., Fetchenhauer, D., & Belschak, F. (2009). Cyberbullying: Who are the victims? A comparison of victimization in Internet chatrooms and victimization in school. Journal of Media Psychology, 21, 25–36.Google Scholar
  60. Keyes, C. L. (2006). Mental health in adolescence: Is America’s youth flourishing? The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 395–402.Google Scholar
  61. Kim, E. J., Namkoong, K., Ku, T., & Kim, S. J. (2008). The relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control and narcissistic personality traits. European Psychiatry, 23(3), 212–218.Google Scholar
  62. Klaw, E. L., Fitzgerald, L. F., & Rhodes, J. E. (2003). Natural mentors in the lives of African-American adolescent mothers: Tracking relationships over time. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 223–232.Google Scholar
  63. Kokkevi, A., Richardson, C., Florescu, S., Kuzman, M., & Stergar, E. (2007). Psychosocial correlates of substance use in adolescence: A cross-national study in six European countries. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 86, 67–74.Google Scholar
  64. Kostanski, M., & Gullone, E. (1998). Adolescent body image dissatisfaction: Relationships with self-esteem, anxiety, and depression controlling for body mass. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 39, 255–262.Google Scholar
  65. Laitinen-Krispijn, S., Van der Ende, J., Hazebroek-Kampschreur, A. A. J. M., & Verhulst, F. C. (1999). Pubertal maturation and the development of behavioral and emotional problems in early adolescence. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 99, 16–25.Google Scholar
  66. Lanthier, R. P., & Windham, R. C. (2004). Internet use and college adjustment: The moderating role of gender. Computers in Human Behavior, 20, 591–606.Google Scholar
  67. Leit, R. A., Pope, H. G., & Gray, J. J. (2001). Cultural expectations of muscularity in men: The evolution of Playgirl centerfolds. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29(1), 90–93.Google Scholar
  68. Lenhart, A., Madden, M., & Hitlin, P. (2005). Teens and technology: You are leading the transition to a fully wired and mobile nation. Retrieved Oct 12, 2005, from
  69. Levitt, M. J., Levitt, J., Bustos, G. L., Crooks, N. A., Santos, J. D., Telan, P., Hodgetts, J., & Milevsky, A. (2005). Patterns of social support in the middle childhood to early adolescent transition: Implications for adjustment. Social Development, 14(3), 398–420.Google Scholar
  70. Lintonen, T., Matti, R., Salme, A., Rimpela, A., & Vikat, A. (2000). Trends in drinking habits among Finnish adolescents from 1977 to 1999. Addiction, 95(8), 1255–1263.Google Scholar
  71. Lussier, G., Deater-Deckard, K., Dunn, J., & Davies, L. (2002). Support across two generations: Children’s closeness to grandparents following parental divorce and remarriage. Journal of Family Psychology, 16, 363–376.Google Scholar
  72. Luthar, S. S., & Zigler, E. (1991). Vulnerability and competence. A review of research on resilience in childhood. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 6–22.Google Scholar
  73. Luyckx, K., Goossens, L., Beyers, W., & Soenens, B. (2006). The Ego identity process questionnaire: Factor structure, reliability, and convergent validity in Dutch-speaking late adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 153–159.Google Scholar
  74. Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In P. H. Mussen & E. M. Hetherington (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Socialization, personality, and social development (Vol. 4, pp. 1–101). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  75. MacKay, A. P., Fingerhut, L. A., & Duran, A. R. (2000). Adolescent health chartbook. Health, United States, 2000. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  76. Marsh, H. W. (1989). Age and sex effects in multiple dimensions of self-concept: Preadolescence to early adulthood. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 417–430.Google Scholar
  77. McCabe, M. P., & Ricciardelli, L. A. (2001). Parent, peer, and media influences on body image and strategies to both increase and decrease body size among adolescent boys and girls. Adolescence, 36, 225–240.Google Scholar
  78. McCabe, R. E., McFarlane, T., Polivy, J., & Olmsted, M. P. (2001). Eating disorders, dieting, and the accuracy of self-reported weight. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 59–64.Google Scholar
  79. McCabe, M. P., & Ricciardelli, L. A. (2003). A longitudinal study of body change strategies among adolescent males. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 105–114.Google Scholar
  80. McCabe, M. P., & Ricciardelli, L. A. (2004). Body image dissatisfaction among males across the lifespan- a review of past literature. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 56(6), 675–685.Google Scholar
  81. McCreary, D. R., & Sasse, D. K. (2000). An exploration of the drive for muscularity in adolescent boys and girls. Journal of American College Health, 48, 297–304.Google Scholar
  82. McLoyd, V. C. (1990). The impact of economic hardship on black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Development, 61, 311–346.Google Scholar
  83. Moessner, C. (2007). Cyber bullying. Trends and Tunes, 6(4). Retrieved on June 21, 2010, from
  84. Muris, P., Meesters, C., & Fijen, P. (2003). The selfperception profile for children: Further evidence for its factor structure, reliability, and validity. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1791–1802.Google Scholar
  85. Narring, F., Tschumper, A., Inderwildi Bonivento, L., Jeannin, A., Addor, V., Bütikofer, A., Suris, J. C., Diserens, C., Alsaker, F., Michaud, P. A. (2003). Gesundheit und Lebensstil 16- bis 20 Jähriger in der Schweiz 2002. SMASH 2002: Swiss multicenter adolescent study on health 2002. Lausanne: Institut universitaire de médecine sociale et préventive; Institut für Psychologie, Bern.Google Scholar
  86. Natsuaki, M. N., Biehl, M. C., & Ge, X. (2009). Trajectories of depressed mood from early adolescence to young adulthood: The effects of pubertal timing and adolescent dating. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 19, 47–74.Google Scholar
  87. Neugarten, B. (1979). Time, age and the life cycle. American Psychologist, 136, 887–894.Google Scholar
  88. Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Hannan, P. J. (2000). Weight-related behaviors among adolescent girls and boys: Results from a national survey. Archives of Pediatrics, 154(6), 569–577.Google Scholar
  89. Noack, P., & Puschner, B. (1999). Differential trajectories of parent–child relationships and psychosocial adjustment in adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 22, 795–804.Google Scholar
  90. Noom, J. M., Decovic, M., & Meeus, W. H. J. (1999). Autonomy, attachment and psychosocial adjustment during adolescence: A double-edged sword? Journal of Adolescence, 22, 771–783.Google Scholar
  91. O’Dea, J. A. (2006). Self-concept, self-esteem and body weight in adolescent females. A three-year longitudinal study. Journal of Health Psychology, 11(4), 599–611.Google Scholar
  92. Offer, D., & Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (1992). Debunking the myths of adolescence: Findings from recent research. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 1003–1013.Google Scholar
  93. Olsen, S. F., Yang, C. M., Hart, C. H., Robinson, C. C., Wu, P., Nelson, D. A., Nelson, L. J., Jin, S., & Wo, J. (2002). Maternal psychological control and preschool children’s behavioral outcomes in China, Rus- sia, and the United States. In B. K. Barber (Ed.), Intrusive parenting: How psychological control affects children and adolescents (pp. 235–262). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  94. Parkhurst, J. T., & Asher, S. R. (1992). Peer rejection in middle school: Subgroup differences in behavior, loneliness, and interpersonal concerns. Developmental Psychology, 28, 231–241.Google Scholar
  95. Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2006). Bullies move beyond the schoolyard, A preliminary look at cyber bullying. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 4(2), 148–169.Google Scholar
  96. Patrick, H., Ryan, A. M., Alfeld-Liro, C., Fredricks, J. A., Hruda, L. Z., & Eccles, J. S. (1999). Adolescents’ commitment to developing talent: The role of peers in continuing motivation for sports and the arts. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 28(6), 741–763.Google Scholar
  97. Pesa, J. A., Syre, T. R., & Jones, E. (2000). Psychosocial differences associated with body weight among girl adolescents: The importance of body image. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 26, 330–337.Google Scholar
  98. Petersen, A. C., & Taylor, B. (1980). The biological approach to adolescence: Biological change and psychological adaptation. In J. Adelson (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 117–155). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  99. Popenoe, D., & Whitehead, B. D. (2007). The state of our unions 2007: The social health of marriage in America. Retrieved Apr 14, 2009, from The National Marriage Project:
  100. Presnell, K., Bearman, S. K., & Stice, E. (2004). Risk factors for body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys and girls: A prospective study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 36, 389–401.Google Scholar
  101. Rahkonen, O., Arber, S., & Lahelma, E. (1995). Health inequalities in early adulthood: A comparison of young men and women in Britain and Finland. Social Science & Medicine, 41, 163–171.Google Scholar
  102. Räty, L. K. A., Larsson, G., Soderfeldt, B. A., & Larsson B. M. W. (2005). Psychosocial aspects of health in adolescence: The influence of gender, and general self-concept. Journal of Adolescent Health, 36(6), 530, e21–e28.Google Scholar
  103. Reddy, R., Rhodes, J. E., & Mulhall, P. (2003). The influence of teacher support on student adjustment in the middle school years: A latent growth curve study. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 119–138.Google Scholar
  104. Ricciardelli, L. A., McCabe, M. P., Holt, K. E., & Finemore, J. (2003). A biopsychosocial model for understanding body image and body change strategies among children. Applied Developmental Psychology, 24, 475–495.Google Scholar
  105. Rigby, K. (2000). Effects of peer victimization in schools and perceived social support on adolescent well-being. Journal of Adolescence, 23(1), 57–68.Google Scholar
  106. Robins, R. W., & Trzesniewski, K. H. (2005). Self-esteem development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 158–162.Google Scholar
  107. Rohner, R. P., Kean, K. J., & Cournoyer, D. E. (1991). Effects of corporal punishment, perceived caretaker warmth, and cultural beliefs on the psychological adjustment of children in St. Kitts, West Indies. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 681–693.Google Scholar
  108. Rosen, J. C., Tacy, B., & Howell, D. (1990). Life stress, psychological symptoms and weight reducing behavior in adolescent girls: A prospective analysis. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 9, 17–26.Google Scholar
  109. Rosenblum, G. D., & Lewis, M. (1999). The relations among body image, physical attractiveness, and body mass in adolescence. Child Development, 70, 50–64.Google Scholar
  110. Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W., & Parker, J. (2006). Peer interactions, relationships, and groups. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional and personality development (6th ed., pp. 571–645). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  111. Ruiz, S. A., & Silverstein, M. (2007). Relationships with grandparents and the emotional well-being of late adolescence and young adult grandchildren. Journal of Social Issues, 63, 793–808.Google Scholar
  112. Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 749–761.Google Scholar
  113. Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.Google Scholar
  114. Santrock, J. W. (2004). Life-span development (9th ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education.Google Scholar
  115. Savin-Williams, R. C., & Berndt, T. J. (1990). Friendships and peer relations during adolescence. In S. S. Feldman & G. R. Elliott (Eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent (pp. 277–307). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  116. Sawyer, M. G., Arney, F. M., Baghurst, P. A., Clark, J. J., Graetz, B. W., & Kosky, R. J. (2000). Mental health of young people in Australia: Child and adolescent component of the National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. Canberra: Common Wealth Department of Health and Aged Care.Google Scholar
  117. Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (1999). Relations of peer acceptance, friendship, adjustment, and social behavior to moral reasoning during early adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 249–279.Google Scholar
  118. Siegel, J. M., Yancey, A. K., Aneshensel, C. S., & Schuler, R. (1999). Body image, perceived pubertal timing, and adolescent mental health. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 25, 155–165.Google Scholar
  119. Simmons, R. G., & Blyth, D. A. (1987). Moving into adolescence: The impact of pubertal change and school context. Hawthorn: Aldine de Gruyler.Google Scholar
  120. Slee, P. T., & Rigby, K. (1993). Australian school children’s self appraisal of interpersonal relations: The bullying experience. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 23, 273–282.Google Scholar
  121. Smolak, L. (2004). Body image in children and adolescents: Where do we go from here? Body Image, 1, 15–28.Google Scholar
  122. Stattin, H., & Magnusson, D. (1990). Pubertal maturation in female development. In D. Magnusson (Ed.), Paths through life (Vol. 2). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  123. Sterrett, E., Jones, D. J., McKee, L., & Kincaid, C. (2011). Supportive non-parental adults and adolescent psychosocial functioning: An Integration and review of recent findings. American Journal of Community Psychology, 48, 484–495.Google Scholar
  124. Stice, E. (2002a). Risk and maintenance factors for eating pathology: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 825–848.Google Scholar
  125. Stice, E. (2002b). Sociocultural influences on body image and eating disturbance. In C. Fairburn & K. Brownell (Eds.), Eating disorders and obesity (2nd ed., pp. 103–107). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  126. Straus, M. A., & Kantor, G. (1994). Corporal punishment of adolescents by parents: A risk factor in the epidemiology of depression, suicide, alcohol abuse, child abuse, and wife beating. Adolescence, 29(115), 543–561.Google Scholar
  127. Szabo, C. P., & Allwood, C. W. (2006). Body figure preference in South African adolescent females: A cross cultural study. African Health Sciences, 6(4), 201–206.Google Scholar
  128. Taylor, R. D., Casten, R., & Flickinger, S. M. (1993). Influence of kin social support on the parenting experiences and psychosocial adjustment of African American adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 29(2), 382–388.Google Scholar
  129. United States Census Bureau (2006). 2005 American community survey: Tables S1001 and S1002. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  130. Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2007). Adolescents’ online communication and their wellbeing: Testing the stimulation versus the displacement hypothesis. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, 1169–1182.Google Scholar
  131. Wardle, J., & Marsland, L. (1990). Adolescent concerns about weight and eating: A social–developmental perspective. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 34, 377–391.Google Scholar
  132. Wentzel, K. R., Barry, C., & Caldwell, K. (2004). Friendships in middle school: Influences on motivation and school adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 195–203.Google Scholar
  133. West, P. (1997). Health inequalities in the early years: Is there equalization in youth? Social Science & Medicine, 44, 833–858.Google Scholar
  134. Wichstrom, L. (2000). Predictors of adolescent suicide attempts: A nationally representative longitudinal study of Norwegian adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 603–610.Google Scholar
  135. Wichstrom, L. (2001). The impact of pubertal timing on adolescents’ alcohol use. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 131–150.Google Scholar
  136. Winter, D. G. (1996). Personality: Analysis and interpretation of lives. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  137. Wood, S., & Liossis, P. (2007). Potentially stressful life events and emotional closeness between grandparents and adult grandchildren. Journal of Family Issues, 28, 380–398.Google Scholar
  138. Woolley, M. E., Kol, K. L., & Bowen, G. L. (2009). The social context of school success for Latino middle school students: Direct and indirect influences of teachers, family, and friends. Journal of Early Adolescence, 29, 43–70.Google Scholar
  139. World Health Organization (WHO). (1999). The “newly defined” burden of mental problems [Fact Sheet N217]. Retrieved June 13, 2000, from
  140. Yates, A., Edman, J., & Aruguette, M. (2004). Ethnic differences in BMI and body/self-dissatisfaction among whites, Asian subgroups, Pacific Islanders, and African-Americans. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 34, 300–307.Google Scholar
  141. Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. (2005). Exposure to internet pornography among children and adolescents: A national survey. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8(5), 473–486.Google Scholar
  142. Yuan, A. S. V. (2007). Gender differences in the relationship of puberty with adolescents’ depressive symptoms: Do body perceptions matter? Sex Roles, 57, 69–80.Google Scholar
  143. Zimmerman, M. A., Bingenheimer, J. B., & Notaro, P. C. (2002). Natural mentors and adolescent resiliency: A study with urban youth. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 221–243.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyMykolas Romeris UniversityVilniusLithuania

Personalised recommendations