Understanding the Well-Being of Children and Adolescents Through Homeostatic Theory

  • Robert A. Cummins


This chapter concerns the subjective well-being (SWB) of children and adolescents (hereafter “children”) within the context of SWB homeostasis. This is an overarching theory which attempts to explain and predict how SWB interacts with other variables. The theory was developed in relation to adult well-being, so whether its tenants apply to children is a major test of validity. The theory’s claims apply to SWB in general, so the empirical support cannot be age specific, with the caveat of maturational adequacy in relation to some cognitive processes. The idea of homeostasis is proposed as a way of understanding mood happiness, so all relevant findings from the adult literature must also apply to children. This chapter first introduces the adult concept of SWB homeostasis and then reviews the relevant data generated from children. It is concluded that there is a reasonable match between such data and theoretical prediction. Thus, SWB homeostasis appears to be an applicable conceptual framework to understand mood happiness in children.


Wellbeing Index Secondary Control School Satisfaction Personal Wellbeing Index Homeostatic System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I thank Ann-Marie James for her assistance in the preparation of this chapter.


  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Integrative guide to the 1991 CBCL/4-18, YSR, and TRF profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychology.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M., McConaughy, S. H., & Howell, C. T. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 213–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AER, American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
  4. Affleck, G., & Tennen, H. (1996). Construing benefits from adversity: Adaptational significance and dispositional underpinnings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 899–922.Google Scholar
  5. Altshuler, J. L., & Ruble, D. N. (1989). Developmental changes in children’s awareness of strategies for coping with uncontrollable stress. Child Development, 60, 1337–1349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  7. Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of well-being: American’s perceptions of life quality. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arkkila, E., Rasanen, P., Roine, R. P., Sintonen, H., & Vilkman, E. (2008). Specific language impairment in childhood is associated with impaired mental and social well-being in adulthood. Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology, 33, 179–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baker, J. (1999). Teacher-student interaction in urban at-risk classrooms: Differential behaviour, relationship quality, and student satisfaction with school. The Elementary School Journal, 100(1), 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baldwin, W. K. (1958). The social position of the educable mentally retarded child in the regular grades in the public schools. Exceptional Children, 25(106–108), 112.Google Scholar
  11. Band, E. B. (1990). Children’s coping with diabetes: Understanding the role of cognitive development. Journal of Paediatric Psychology, 15(1), 27–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beach, S. R. H., & Tesser, A. (2000). Self-evaluation maintenance and evolution- some speculative notes. In J. Suls & L. Wheeler (Eds.), Handbook of social comparison: Theory and research (pp. 123–141). New York: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blore, J. D., Stokes, M. A., Mellor, D., Firth, L., & Cummins, R. A. (2011). Comparing multiple discrepancies theory to affective models of subjective wellbeing. Social Indicators Research, 100(1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, R. I., & Timmons, V. (1994). Quality of life - adults and adolescents with disabilities. Exceptionality Education Canada, 4, 1–11.Google Scholar
  15. Burke, R. J., & Weir, T. (1978). Sex differences in adolescent life stress, social support, and well-being. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 98, 277–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cairney, J., Boyle, M., Offord, D. R., & Racine, Y. (2003). Stress, social support and depression in single and married mothers. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38(8), 442–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., & Rodgers, W. L. (1976). The quality of American life: Perceptions, evaluations, and satisfactions. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Casas, F., Baltatescu, S., Bertran, I., González, M., & Hatos, A. (2009). Similarities and differences in the PWI of Romanian and Spanish adolescents aged 13–16 years-old. Paper presented at the conference. International Society for Quality of Life Studies, Florence.Google Scholar
  19. Casas, F., Castellá Sarriera, J., Abs, D., Coenders, G., Alfaro, J., Saforcada, E., & Tonon, G. (2011a). Subjective indicators of personal well-being among adolescents. Performance and results for different scales in Latin-language speaking countries: A contribution to the international debate. Child Indicators Research. doi:10.1007/s12187-011-9119-1.Google Scholar
  20. Casas, F., Castellá Sarriera, J., Alfaro, J., González, M., Malo, S., Bertran, I., & Valdenegro, B. (2011b). Testing the personal wellbeing Index on 12–16 year-old adolescents in 3 different countries with 2 new items. Social Indicators Research. doi:10.1007/s11205-011-9781-1.Google Scholar
  21. Casas, F., Coenders, G., Cummins, R. A., González, M., Figuer, C., & Malo, S. (2008). Does subjective well-being show a relationship between parents and their children? Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 197–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Casas, F., Figuer, C., González, M., & Malo, S. (2007a). The values adolescents aspire to, their well-being and the values parents aspire to for their children. Social Indicators Research, 84(3), 271–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Casas, F., Figuer, C., González, M., Malo, S., Alsinet, C., & Subarroca, S. (2007b). The well-being of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents and their parents: Results from 1999 to 2003 Spanish samples. Social Indicators Research, 83(1), 87–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Casas, F., González, M., Figuer, C., & Malo, S. (2009b). Satisfaction with spirituality, satisfaction with religion and personal well-being among Spanish adolescents and young university students. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 4, 23–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Casas, F., Malo, S., Bataller, S., González, M., & Figuer, C. (2009). Personal well-being among 12 to 18 year-old adolescents and Spanish university students, evaluated through the Personal Well-Being Index (PWI). Paper presented at the conference presentation. International Society for Quality of Life Studies, Florence.Google Scholar
  26. Christopher, M. S., & Gilbert, B. D. (2010). Incremental validity of components of mindfulness in the prediction of satisfaction with life and depression. Current Psychology, 29(1), 10–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cicchetti, D., & Cohen, D. J. (1995). Preface. Developmental psychopathology (Theories and methods, Vol. 1). Toronto: Wiley.Google Scholar
  28. Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical power analysis of the behavioral sciences (Rev ed.). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  29. Costa, P., & McCrae, R. (1992). Revised NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the NEO five factor inventory: professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  30. Cummins, R. A. (1995). On the trail of the gold standard for life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 35, 179–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cummins, R. A. (1997a). Comprehensive quality of life scale-intellectual/cognitive disability: ComQol-15 (5th ed.). Melbourne: School Of Psychology, Deakin University.Google Scholar
  32. Cummins, R. A. (1997b). The comprehensive quality of life scale - adult (5th ed.). Melbourne: School of Psychology, Deakin University.Google Scholar
  33. Cummins, R. A. (1998). The second approximation to an international standard of life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 43, 307–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cummins, R. A. (2000). Personal income and subjective well-being: A review. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1, 133–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cummins, R. A. (2002). Proxy responding for subjective well-being: A review. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation, 25, 183–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cummins, R. A. (2010). Subjective wellbeing, homeostatically protected mood and depression: A synthesis. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11, 1–17. doi: 10.1007/s10902-009-9167-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cummins, R. A., Eckersley, R., Lo, S. K., Okerstrom, E., Hunter, B., & Davern, M. (2003). Australian Unity Wellbeing Index: Report 6.0 - “The Wellbeing of Australians - The Impact of the Iraq Situation”. Retrieved January 16, 2012, Melbourne: Australian Centre on Quality of Life, School of Psychology, Deakin University. ISBN 0 7300 2583 7, from
  38. Cummins, R. A., Gullone, E., & Lau, A. L. D. (2002). A model of subjective well being homeostasis: The role of personality. In E. Gullone & R. A. Cummins (Eds.), The universality of subjective wellbeing indicators: Social indicators research series (pp. 7–46). Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cummins, R. A., & Lau, A. D. L. (2005). Personal Wellbeing Index-School Children (PWI-SC) (3rd ed.). Melbourne: School of Psychology, Deakin University.Google Scholar
  40. Cummins, R. A., & Nistico, H. (2002). Maintaining life satisfaction: The role of positive cognitive bias. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 37–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cummins, R. A., Walter, J., & Woerner, J. (2007). Australian Unity Wellbeing Index: Report 16.1 - “The Wellbeing of Australians - Groups with the highest and lowest wellbeing in Australia”. Retrieved January 16, 2012, Melbourne: Australian Centre on Quality of Life, School of Psychology, Deakin University. ISBN 978 1 74156 079 4, from
  42. Cummins, R. A., Woerner, J., Hartley-Clark, L., Perera, C., Collard, J., & Horfiniak, K. C. (2011). Australian Unity Wellbeing Index - Report 26.0 - The Wellbeing of Australians - Chronic health. Retrieved 16 January, 2012, Melbourne, Australian Centre on Quality of Life, School of Psychology, Deakin University. ISBN 978-1-74156-164-7, from
  43. Cummins, R. A., Woerner, J., Weinberg, M., Perera, C., Gibson-Prosser, A., Collard, J., & Horfiniak, K. (2010). Australian Unity Wellbeing Index: - Report 24.0 - The Wellbeing of Australians - Trust, Life Better/Worse and Climate Change. Retrieved January 16, 2012, Melbourne, Australian Centre on Quality of Life, School of Psychology, Deakin University. ISBN 78 1 74156 148 7, from
  44. Cummins, R. A., Woerner, J., Tomyn, A., Gibson, A., & Knapp, T. (2007). Australian Unity Wellbeing Index: Report 17.0 - “The Wellbeing of Australians - Work, Wealth and Happiness”. Retrieved January 16, 2012, Melbourne, Australian Centre on Quality of Life, School of Psychology, Deakin University. ISBN 978 1 74156 088 6, from
  45. Dadds, M. R., Spence, S. H., Holland, D. E., Barrett, P. M., & Laurens, K. R. (1997). Prevention and early intervention for anxiety disorders: A controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 627–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Davern, M., Cummins, R. A., & Stokes, M. (2007). Subjective wellbeing as an affective/cognitive construct. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8(4), 429–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Deater-Deckard, K. (2001). Annotation: Recent research examining the role of peer relationships in the development of psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 565–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. DeNeve, K. M., & Cooper, H. (1998). The happy personality: A meta-analysis of 137 personality traits and subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 197–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dew, T., & Huebner, E. S. (1994). Adolescents’ perceived quality of life: An exploratory investigation. Journal of School Psychology, 32, 185–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Diener, E. D., Napa-Scollon, C. K., & Lucas, R. E. (2004). The evolving concept of subjective well-being: The multifaceted nature of happiness. In P. T. Coista & I. C. Siegler (Eds.), Recent advances in psychology and aging (pp. 188–219). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV.Google Scholar
  52. Emmons, R. A., & Diener, E. (1985). Personality correlates of subjective well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 11, 89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Enger, J. M., Howerton, D. L., & Cobbs, C. R. (1994). Internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction of at-risk black male adolescents. The Journal of Social Psychology, 134, 269–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fischer, R., & Boer, D. (2011). What is more important for national well-being: Money or autonomy? A meta-analysis of well-being, burnout, and anxiety across 63 societies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(1), 164–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Folkman, S., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2002). Positive affect and the other side of coping. American psychologist, 55, 647–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Greenberger, E., & Chen, C. (1996). Perceived family relationships and depressed mood in early and late adolescence: A comparison of European and Asian Americans. Developmental Psychology, 32, 707–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hanestad, B. R., & Albrektsen, G. (1992). The stability of quality of life experience in people with type 1 diabetes over a period of a year. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17, 777–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hawker, D. S. J., & Boulton, M. J. (2002). Research on peer victimization and psychosocial maladjustment: A meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 441–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hawkins, W. E., Hawkins, M. J., & Seeley, J. (1992). Stress, health-related behavior and quality of life on depressive symptomatology in a sample of adolescents. Psychological Reports, 71, 183–186.Google Scholar
  60. Headey, B., & Wearing, A. (1989). Personality, life events, and subjective well-being: Toward a dynamic equilibrium model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 731–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Headey, B., & Wearing, A. (1992). Understanding happiness: A theory of subjective well-being. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire.Google Scholar
  62. Heaven, P. C. L. (1989). Extraversion, neuroticism and satisfaction with life among adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 10, 489–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Heiman, T., & Margalit, M. (1998). Loneliness, depression, and social skills among students with mild mental retardation in different educational settings. Journal of Special Education, 32, 154–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Helson, H. (1964). Adaptation-level theory. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  65. Henderson, S. (1977). The social network, support and neurosis. The function of attachment in adult life. British Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 185–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hong, S., Bianca, M. A., Bianca, M. R., & Bollington, J. (1993). Self-esteem: The effects of life satisfaction, sex, and age. Psychological Reports, 72, 95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hornby, G., & Kidd, R. (2001). Transfer from special to mainstream- ten years later. British Journal of Special Education, 28, 10–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Huebner, E. S. (1991). Correlates of life satisfaction in children. School Psychology Quarterly, 6, 103–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Huebner, E. S., Gilman, R., & Laughlin, J. E. (1999). A multimethod investigation of the multidimensionality of children’s wellbeing reports: Discriminant validity of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Social Indicators Research, 46, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. International Wellbeing Group. (2006). Personal Wellbeing Index Manual (4th ed.). Retrieved June 22, 2011, from
  71. Iverach, L., Jones, M., O’Brian, S., Block, S., Lincoln, M., Harrison, E., & Onslow, M. (2009). Screening for personality disorders among adults seeking speech treatment for stuttering. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 34(173–186).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jin, S.-U., & Moon, S. M. (2006). A study of wellbeing and school satisfaction among academically talented students attending a science high school in Korea. Gifted Child Quarterly, 50(2), 169–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Keyes, C. L. M. (2006). Mental health in adolescence: Is America’s youth flourishing? The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 395–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Klein, J. F., & Hood, S. B. (2004). The impact of stuttering on employment opportunities and job performance. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 29, 255–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Klompas, M., & Ross, E. (2004). Life experiences of people who stutter, and the perceived impact of stuttering on quality of life: Personal accounts of South African individuals. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 29, 275–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Koo, M., & Oishi, S. (2009). False memory and the associative network of happiness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(2), 212–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kozma, A., Stone, S., & Stones, M. J. (2000). Stability in components and predictors of subjective well-being (SWB): Implications for SWB structure. In E. Diener & D. R. Rahtz (Eds.), Advances in quality of life: Theory and research (pp. 13–30). Great Britain: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Leung, I., & Leung, K. (1992). Life satisfaction, self-concept, and relationship with parents in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21, 653–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Liu, B. (1975). Quality of life: Concept, measure and results. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 34, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lykken, D., & Tellegen, A. (1996). Happiness is a stochastic phenomenon. Psychological Science, 7, 186–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Man, P. (1991). The influence of peers and parents on youth life satisfaction in Hong Kong. Social Indicators Research, 24, 347–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Marriage, K., & Cummins, R. A. (2004). Subjective quality of life and self-esteem in children: The role of primary and secondary control in coping with everyday stress. Social Indicators Research, 66, 107–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Michalos, A. C. (1985). Multiple Discrepancies Theory (MDT). Social Indicators Research, 16, 347–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Milne, J. M., Garrison, C. Z., Addy, C. L., McKeown, R. E., Jackson, K. L., Cuffe, S. P., & Waller, J. L. (1995). Frequency of phobic disorder in a community sample of young adolescents. Journal of the Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1202–1211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mulcahy, K., Hennessey, N., Beilby, J., & Byrnes, M. (2008). Social anxiety and the severity and typography of stuttering in adolescents. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 33, 306–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Neto, F. (1993). The satisfaction with life scale: Psychometric properties in an adolescent sample. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 22, 125–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nieboer, A. P. (1997). Life Events and well-being: A prospective study on changes in well-being of elderly people due to a serious illness event or death of the spouse. Amsterdam: Thesis.Google Scholar
  88. O’Keefe, B. M. (1996). Communication disorders. In R. Renwick, I. Brown, & M. Nagler (Eds.), Quality of life in health promotion and rehabilitation (pp. 219–236). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  89. Ormel, J. (1983). Neuroticism and well-being inventories. Measuring traits or states? Psychological Medicine, 13, 165–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ormel, J., & Schaufeli, W. B. (1991). Stability and change in psychological distress and their relationship with self-esteem and locus of control: A dynamic equilibrium mode. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 288–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Peters, T. J., & Guitar, B. (1991). Stuttering: An integrated approach to its nature and treatment. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  92. Petito, F., & Cummins, R. A. (2000). Quality of life in adolescence: The role of perceived control, parenting style and social support. Behaviour Change, 17, 196–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Proctor, C., Maltby, J., & Linley, P. A. (2011). Strengths use as a predictor of well-being and health-related quality of life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(1), 153–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Renn, D., Pfaffenberger, N., Platter, M., Mitmansgruber, H., Höfer, S., & Cummins, R. A. (2009). International well-being index: The Austrian version. Social Indicators Research, 90, 243–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ross, E. (2001). A social work perspective on stuttering. Social Work, 37(1), 35–42.Google Scholar
  96. Rothbaum, F., Weisz, J. R., & Snyder, S. S. (1982). Changing the world and changing the self: A two-process model of perceived control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 5–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Røysamb, E., Harris, J. R., Magnus, P., Vitterso, J., & Tambs, K. (2002). Subjective well-being. Sex-specific effects of genetic and environmental factors. Personality and individual differences, 32, 211–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Roysamb, E., Tambs, K., Reichborn-Kjennerud, T., Neale, M. C., & Harris, J. R. (2003). Happiness and health: Environmental and genetic contributions to the relationship between subjective wellbeing, perceived health, and somatic illness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(6), 1136–1146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sanna, L. J. (1996). Defensive pessimism, optimism and simulating alternatives: Some ups and downs of prefactual and counterfactual thinking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(5), 1020–1036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sarason, I. G., Sarason, B. R., & Pierce, G. R. (1990). Social support: The search for theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 137–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sawyer, M. G., Arney, F. M., Baghurst, P. A., Clark, J. J., Graetz, B. W., Kosky, R. J., Nurcombe, B., Patton, G. C., Prior, M. R., Raphael, B., Rey, J., Whaites, L. C., Zubrick, S. R. (2000). The mental health of young people in Australia. Canberra: Mental Health and Special Programs Branch: Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care.Google Scholar
  102. Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Shepperd, J. A., OueUette, J. A., & Fernandez, J. K. (1996). Abandoning unrealistic optimism: Performance estimates and the temporal proximity of self-relevant feedback. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 844–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Smith, M. K. E., & Brun, C. L. (2006). An analysis of selected measures of child well-being for use at school and community-based family resource centers. Child Welfare, 85(6), 985–1010.Google Scholar
  105. Spence, S. H. (1996). A case for prevention. In P. Cotton & H. Jackson (Eds.), Early intervention and prevention in mental health (pp. 87–107). Melbourne: Australian Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  106. Steinberg, L. (1993). Adolescence. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  107. Stones, M. J., & Kozma, A. (1991). A magical model of happiness. Social Indicators Research, 25, 31–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Stubbe, J. H., Posthuma, D., Boomsma, D. I., & de Geus, E. J. (2005). Heritability of life satisfaction in adults: A twin-family study. Psychological Medicine, 35, 1581–1588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Susan, E. J., Dorn, L. D., & Chrousos, C. P. (1991). Negative affect and hormone levels in young adolescents: Concurrent and predictive perspectives. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20, 167–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tesser, A. (1988). Toward a self-evaluation maintenance model of social behavior. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 181–227). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  111. Tomyn, A. J., & Cummins, R. A. (2011a). Subjective wellbeing and homeostatically protected mood: Theory validation with adolescents. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(5), 897–914. doi: 10.1007/s10902-010-9235-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tomyn, A. J., & Cummins, R. A. (2011b). The subjective wellbeing of high-school students: Validating the personal wellbeing index-school children. Social Indicators Research, 101, 405–418. doi:10.1007/s11205-010-9668-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. van Riper, C. (1971). The nature of stuttering. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  114. Vitterso, J. (2001). Personality traits and subjective well-being: Emotional stability, not extraversion, is probably the important predictor. Personality and Individual Differences, 31(6), 903–914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Vitterso, J., & Nilsen, F. (2002). The conceptual and relational structure of subjective well-being, neuroticism, and extraversion: Once again, neuroticism is the important predictor of happiness. Social Indicators Research, 57(1), 89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Williams, G. A., & Asher, S. R. (1992). Assessment of loneliness at school among children with mild mental retardation. American Association on Mental Retardation, 96, 373–385.Google Scholar
  117. Wills, T. A. (1981). Downward comparison principles in social psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 245–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Yuker, H. E. (1988). Mothers’ perceptions of their disabled children: A review of the literature. Journal of the Multihandicapped Person, 1, 217–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyDeakin UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations