Positive and Protective Factors in Adolescent Well-Being

  • Laura H. Lippman
  • Renee Ryberg
  • Mary Terzian
  • Kristin A. Moore
  • Jill Humble
  • Hugh McIntosh


This chapter reviews the evidence behind positive and protective factors related to adolescent well-being and identifies those that are supported by research that meets selection criteria established by the authors. “Positive factors” are those linked to positive outcomes, and “protective factors” are here defined as those that are negatively correlated with negative outcomes. Although past research has focused on factors related to negative outcomes, research on positive factors is essential to create a balanced, comprehensive approach to the study of adolescent well-being.

Our literature review is organized according to an updated version of a positive-indicators framework developed for the UNICEF Innocenti Research Center (Lippman, L. H., Moore, K. A., & McIntosh, H. (2009). Positive indicators of child well-being: A conceptual framework, measures and methodological issues (Innocenti Working Paper). Florence: United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)), which organizes positive youth development assets into five domains: (a) physical health, development, and safety; (b) psychological and emotional development; (c) social development and behavior; (d) cognitive development and education; and (e) religiosity and spiritual development. We screened more than 300 research publications, selecting for analysis 85 that met at least two of the following criteria of scientific rigor: a sample of at least 200, controls for demographic variables, random sampling, and a longitudinal design with a follow-up of at least one year.

Our chapter describes the positive and protective factors with links to adolescent well-being that are supported by the selected studies. Where studies were available, the chapter also examines evaluation studies to explore how amenable the factors are to intervention. In addition, we point out gaps in the literature and needs for future research.


Life Satisfaction Protective Factor Social Competence Emotional Intelligence Emotional Stability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aarons, S. J., Jenkins, R. R., Raine, T. R., El-Khorazaty, M. N., Woodward, K. M., Williams, R. L., et al. (2000). Postponing sexual intercourse among urban junior high school students: A randomized controlled evaluation. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27, 236–247.Google Scholar
  2. Als, H., Duffy, F. H., McAnulty, G. B., Rivkin, M. J., Vajapeyam, S., Mulkern, R. V., et al. (2004). Early experience alters brain function and structure. Pediatrics, 113, 846–857.Google Scholar
  3. Bacon, T. P. (2000). The effects of the Too Good for Drugs II drug prevention program on students’ substance use intentions and risk and protective factors. Research Bulletin, 31, 1–25.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A., Pastorelli, C., Barbaranelli, C., & Caprara, G. V. (1999). Self-efficacy pathways to childhood depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 258–269.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Gerbino, M., & Pastorelli, C. (2003). Role of affective self-regulatory efficacy in diverse spheres of psychosocial functioning. Child Development, 74, 769–782.Google Scholar
  6. Barnet, B., Liu, J., DeVoe, M., Alperovitz-Bichell, K., & Duggan, A. K. (2007). Home visiting for adolescent mothers: Effects on parenting, maternal life course, and primary care linkage. Annals of Family Medicine, 5, 224–232.Google Scholar
  7. Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Finkenauer, C., & Vohs, K. D. (2001). Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology, 5, 323–370.Google Scholar
  8. Ben-Arieh, A. (2000). Beyond welfare: Measuring and monitoring the state of children – New trends and domains. Social Indicators Research, 52, 235–257.Google Scholar
  9. Ben-Arieh, A. (2008). The child indicators movement: Past, present, and future. Child Indicators Research, 1, 3–16.Google Scholar
  10. Ben-Arieh, A., & Wintersberger, H. (1997). Monitoring and measuring the state of children – Beyond survival. Vienna, Austria: European Center for Social Welfare Policy and Research.Google Scholar
  11. Benda, B. B., & Corwyn, R. F. (1997). Religion and delinquency: The relationship after considering family and peer influences. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 36, 81–92.Google Scholar
  12. Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., Sesma, A., & Roehlkepartain, E. C. (2005). Adolescent spirituality. In K. A. Moore & L. H. Lippman (Eds.), What do children need to flourish? Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development (pp. 25–40). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  13. Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., Syvertsen, A. K., & Roehlkepartain, E. C. (2013). The spiritual lives of adolescents: An international exploration. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  14. Bernstein, L., Rappaport, C. D., Olsho, L., Hunt, D., Levin, M., Dyous, C., et al. (2009). Impact evaluation of the U.S. Department of Education’s student mentoring program. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  15. Best Foundation. (2002). Project ALERT implementation. Retrieved from
  16. Beyers, J. M., Toumbourou, J. W., Catalano, R. F., Arthur, M. W., & Hawkins, J. D. (2004). A cross-national comparison of risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use: The United States and Australia. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35, 3–16.Google Scholar
  17. Birndorf, S., Ryan, S., Auinger, P., & Aten, M. (2005). High self-esteem among adolescents: Longitudinal trends, sex differences, and protective factors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 37, 194–201.Google Scholar
  18. Blum, R. W., & Rinehart, P. M. (1997). Reducing the risk: Connections that make a difference in the lives of youth. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Division of General Pediatrics, Adolescent Health.Google Scholar
  19. Blumberg, S. J., Carle, A. C., O’Connor, K. S., Moore, K. A., & Lippman, L. H. (2008). Social competence: Development of an indicator for children and adolescents. Child Indicators Research, 1, 176–197.Google Scholar
  20. Boccanfuso, C., Lippman, L. H., Kuhfeld, M., Princiotta, D., & Ryberg, R. (2012). Making the case for the importance of school climate for improving school success (Lessons learned brief under review). Washington, DC: Safe and Supportive Schools Technical Assistance Center.Google Scholar
  21. Bond, L., Toumbourou, J., Thomas, L., Catalano, R. F., & Patton, G. (2005). Individual, family, school and community risk and protective factors for depressive symptoms in adolescents. Prevention Science, 6, 73–88.Google Scholar
  22. Bond, L., Butler, H., Thomas, L., Carlin, J., Glover, S., Bowes, G., et al. (2007). Social and school connectedness in early secondary school as predictors of late teenage substance use, mental health, and academic outcomes. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40, 357.e9–357.e18.Google Scholar
  23. Bornstein, M. H., Davidson, L., Keyes, C. L. M., Moore, K. A., & The Center for Child Well-Being (Eds.). (2002). Well-being: Positive development across the life course. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  24. Bosworth, K., Espelage, D., Dubay, T., Daytner, G., & Karageorge, K. (2000). Preliminary evaluation of a multimedia violence prevention program for adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 24, 268–280.Google Scholar
  25. Botvin, G. J. (1998). Preventing adolescent drug abuse through Life Skills Training: Theory, methods, and effectiveness. In J. Crane (Ed.), Social programs that work (pp. 225–257). New York, NY: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  26. Botvin, G. J., Eng, A., & Williams, C. L. (1980). Preventing the onset of cigarette smoking through Life Skills Training. Preventive Medicine, 9, 135–143.Google Scholar
  27. Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Botvin, E. M., Filazzola, A. D., & Millman, R. B. (1984a). Prevention of alcohol misuse through the development of personal and social competence: A pilot study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 45, 550–552.Google Scholar
  28. Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Renick, N. L., Filazzola, A. D., & Botvin, E. M. (1984b). A cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention. Addictive Behaviors, 9, 137–147.Google Scholar
  29. Botvin, G. J., Batson, H. W., Witts-Vitale, S., Bess, V., Baker, E., & Dusenbury, L. (1989a). A psychosocial approach to smoking prevention for urban black youth. Public Health Reports, 104, 573–582.Google Scholar
  30. Botvin, G. J., Dusenbury, L., Baker, E., James-Ortiz, S., & Kerner, J. (1989b). A skills training approach to smoking prevention among Hispanic youth. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12, 279–296.Google Scholar
  31. Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Dunesbury, L., Botvin, E. M., & Diaz, T. (1995). Long-term follow-up results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a white middle-class population. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 1106–1112.Google Scholar
  32. Botvin, G. J., Griffin, K. W., Diaz, T., Scheier, L. M., Williams, C., & Epstein, J. A. (2000). Preventing illicit drug use in adolescents: Long-term follow-up data from a randomized control trial of a school population. Addictive Behaviors, 25, 769–774.Google Scholar
  33. Bradshaw, J., Hoelscher, P., & Richardson, D. (2007). An index of child well-being in the European Union. Journal of Social Indicators Research, 80, 133–177.Google Scholar
  34. Bradshaw, J., Keung, A., Rees, G., & Goswami, H. (2011). Children’s subjective well-being: International comparative perspectives. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 548–556.Google Scholar
  35. Brim, O. G. (1975a). Childhood social indicators: Monitoring the ecology of development. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 119, 413–418.Google Scholar
  36. Brim, O. G. (1975b). Macro-structural influences on child development and the need for childhood social indicators. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 45, 516–524.Google Scholar
  37. Bryant, A. L., Schulenberg, J. E., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Johnston, L. D. (2003). How academic achievement, attitudes, and behaviors relate to the course of substance use during adolescence: A 6-year, multiwave national longitudinal study. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13, 361–397.Google Scholar
  38. Caldwell, R. M., Wiebe, R. P., & Cleveland, H. H. (2006). The influence of future certainty and contextual factors on delinquent behavior and school adjustment among African American adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 591–602.Google Scholar
  39. Callas, P. W., Flynn, B. S., & Worden, J. K. (2004). Potentially modifiable psychosocial factors associated with alcohol use during early adolescence. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 1503–1515.Google Scholar
  40. Carvajal, S. C., Clair, S. D., Nash, S. G., & Evans, R. I. (1998). Relating optimism, hope, and self-esteem to social influences in deterring substance use in adolescents. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 17, 443–465.Google Scholar
  41. Casas, F., Figuer, C., González, M., Malo, S., Alsinet, C., & Subarroco, S. (2007). The well-being of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents and their parents: Results from 1999 to 2003 Spanish samples. Social Indicators Research, 83, 87–115.Google Scholar
  42. Catalano, R. F., Berglund, M. L., Ryan, J. A. M., Lonczak, H. S., & Hawkins, J. D. (1999). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Development, National Institute for Child Health and Human Development.Google Scholar
  43. Catalano, R. F., Mazza, J. J., Harachi, T. W., Abbott, R. D., Haggerty, K. P., & Fleming, C. B. (2002). Raising healthy children through enhancing social development in elementary school: Results after 1.5 years. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Social Development Research Group.Google Scholar
  44. Catsambis, S., & Beveridge, A. (2001). Does neighborhood matter? Family, neighborhood, and school influences on eighth-grade mathematics achievement. Sociological Focus, 34, 435–457.Google Scholar
  45. Cave, G., & Quint, J. (1990). Career Beginnings impact evaluation: Findings from a program for disadvantaged high school students. New York, NY: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.Google Scholar
  46. Chang, L. (2003). Variable effects of children’s aggression, social withdrawal, and prosocial leadership as a function of teacher beliefs and behaviors. Child Development, 74, 535–548.Google Scholar
  47. Child Trends. (2010). Vigorous physical activity by youth. Retrieved from
  48. Collins, L. M., Sussman, S., Rauch, J. M., Dent, C. W., Johnson, C. A., Hansen, W. B., et al. (1987). Psychosocial predictors of young adolescent cigarette smoking: A sixteen-month, three-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 17, 554–573.Google Scholar
  49. Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2003). Personal and social assets that promote well-being. In J. S. Eccles & J. A. Gootman (Eds.), Community programs to promote youth development (pp. 66–85). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  50. Connell, J. P., Halpern-Felsher, B. L., Clifford, E., Crichlow, W., & Usinger, P. (1995). Hanging in there: Behavioral, psychological, and contextual factors affecting whether African American adolescents stay in high school. Journal of Adolescent Research, 10, 41–63.Google Scholar
  51. Cook, T. D., Herman, M. R., Phillips, M., & Settersten, R. A., Jr. (2005). Some ways in which neighborhoods, nuclear families, friendship groups, and schools jointly affect changes in early adolescent development. Child Development, 73, 1283–1309.Google Scholar
  52. Coyle, K. K., Kirby, D. B., Marin, B. V., Gomez, C. A., & Gregorich, S. E. (2004). Draw the Line/Respect the Line: A randomized trial of a middle school intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors. American Journal of Public Health, 94, 843–851.Google Scholar
  53. D’Onofrio, B. M., Murrelle, L., Eaves, L. J., McCullough, M. E., Landis, J. L., & Maes, H. H. (1999). Adolescent religiousness and its influence on substance use: Preliminary findings from the Mid-Atlantic School Age Twin Study. Twin Research, 2, 156–168.Google Scholar
  54. Davis, J. E., & Jordan, W. T. (1994). The effects of school context, structure, and experiences on African American males in middle and high school. Journal of Negro Education, 63, 570–587.Google Scholar
  55. De Kemp, R. A. T., Overbeek, G., De Wied, M., Engles, R. C. M. E., & Scholte, R. H. J. (2007). Early adolescent empathy, parental support, and antisocial behavior. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 168, 5–18.Google Scholar
  56. Dew, T., & Huebner, E. S. (1994). Adolescents’ perceived quality of life: An exploratory investigation. Journal of School Psychology, 32, 185–199.Google Scholar
  57. Donahue, M. J., & Benson, P. L. (1995). Religion and the well-being of adolescents. Journal of Social Issues, 51(2), 145–160.Google Scholar
  58. Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2007). The impact of after-school programs that promote personal and social skills. Chicago, IL: Collaboration for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning.Google Scholar
  59. Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82, 405–432.Google Scholar
  60. Eccles, J. S., & Gootman, J. (Eds.). (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  61. Eccles, J. S., Early, D., Fraser, K., Belansky, E., & McCarthy, K. (1997). The relation of connection, regulation, and support for autonomy to adolescents’ functioning. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12, 263–286.Google Scholar
  62. Eddy, J. M., Reid, J. B., & Fetrow, R. A. (2000). An elementary school-based prevention program targeting modifiable antecedents of youth delinquency and violence: Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT). Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, 8, 165–176.Google Scholar
  63. Eggert, L. L., Thompson, E. A., Herting, J. R., Nicholas, L. J., & Dickers, B. G. (1994). Preventing adolescent drug abuse and high school dropout through an intensive social network development program. American Journal of Health Promotion, 8, 202–215.Google Scholar
  64. Eisen, M. (2002). Intermediate outcomes from a life skills education program with a media literacy component. In W. D. Crano & M. Burgoon (Eds.), Mass media and drug prevention: Classic and contemporary theories and research (pp. 187–214). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  65. Eisen, M., Zellman, G. L., Massett, H. A., & Murray, D. M. (2002). Evaluating the Lions-Quest “Skills for Adolescence” drug education program: First-year behavior outcomes. Addictive Behaviors, 27, 619–632.Google Scholar
  66. Eisen, M., Zellman, G. L., & Murray, D. M. (2003). Evaluating the Lions-Quest “Skills for Adolescence” drug education program: Second-year behavior outcomes. Addictive Behaviors, 28, 883–897.Google Scholar
  67. Ellickson, P. L. (1998). Preventing adolescent substance abuse: Lessons from the Project ALERT program. In J. Crane (Ed.), Social programs that work (pp. 201–224). New York, NY: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  68. Ellickson, P. L., & Bell, R. M. (1990). Drug prevention in junior high: A multi-site longitudinal test. Science, 247, 1299–1305.Google Scholar
  69. Ellickson, P. L., Bell, R. M., & McGuigan, K. (1993). Preventing adolescent drug use: Long-term results of a junior high program. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 856–861.Google Scholar
  70. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  71. Erikson, E. H. (1985). Childhood and society (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  72. Extremera, N., Duran, A., & Rey, L. (2007). Perceived emotional intelligence and dispositional optimism-pessimism: Analyzing their role in predicting psychological adjustment among adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 1069–1079.Google Scholar
  73. Fenzel, M. L., & O’Brennan, L. M. (2007). Educating at-risk urban African American children: The effects of school climate on motivation and academic achievement. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  74. Flannery, D. J., Vazsonyi, A. T., Liau, A. K., Guo, S., Powell, K. E., Atha, H., et al. (2003). Initial behavior outcomes for the PeaceBuilders universal school-based prevention program. Developmental Psychology, 39, 292–308.Google Scholar
  75. Flay, B. R., & Allred, C. G. (2003). Long-term effects of the Positive Action program. American Journal of Health Behavior, 27(Suppl. 1), 6–21.Google Scholar
  76. Francis, L. J. (2000). The relationship between Bible reading and purpose in life among 13–15-year-olds. Mental Health, Religion, & Culture, 3, 27–36.Google Scholar
  77. Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., Friedel, J., & Paris, A. H. (2005). School engagement. In K. A. Moore & L. H. Lippman (Eds.), What do children need to flourish? Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development (pp. 305–321). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  78. Froh, J. J., Sefick, W. J., & Emmons, R. (2008). Counting blessings in early adolescents: An experimental study of gratitude and subjective well-being. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 213–233.Google Scholar
  79. Froh, J. J., Yurkewicz, C., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Gratitude and subjective well-being in early adolescence: Examining gender differences. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 633–650.Google Scholar
  80. Froh, J. J., Bono, G., & Emmons, R. (2010). Being grateful is beyond good manners: Gratitude and motivation to contribute to society among early adolescents. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 144–157.Google Scholar
  81. Furlong, M. J., Whipple, A. D., St. Jean, G., Simental, J., Soliz, A., & Punthuna, S. (2003). Multiple contexts of school engagement: Moving toward a unifying framework for educational research and practice. The California School Psychologist, 8, 99–114.Google Scholar
  82. Furrow, J. L., King, P. E., & White, K. (2004). Religion and positive youth development: Identity, meaning, and prosocial concerns. Applied Developmental Science, 8, 17–26.Google Scholar
  83. Gestsdottir, S., & Lerner, R. M. (2007). Intentional self-regulation and positive youth development in early adolescence: Findings from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. Developmental Psychology, 43, 508–521.Google Scholar
  84. Gini, G., Albiero, P., Benelli, B., & Altoe, G. (2008). Determinants of adolescents’ active defending and passive bystanding behavior in bullying. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 93–105.Google Scholar
  85. Goodenow, C. (1993). The psychological sense of school membership among adolescents: Scale development and educational correlates. Psychology in the Schools, 30, 79–90.Google Scholar
  86. Gottfredson, D. C., Cross, A. B., Wilson, D. M., Rorie, M., & Connell, N. (2010). Effects of participation in after-school programs for middle school students: A randomized trial. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 3, 282–313.Google Scholar
  87. Gregory, A., & Weinstein, R. S. (2004). Connection and regulation at home and in school: Predicting growth in achievement for adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19, 405–427.Google Scholar
  88. Griffin, K. W., Botvin, G. J., & Nichols, T. R. (2004). Long-term follow-up effects of a school-based drug abuse prevention program on adolescent risky driving. Prevention Science, 5, 207–212.Google Scholar
  89. Guo, J., Hawkins, J. D., Hill, K. G., & Abbott, R. D. (2001). Childhood and adolescent predictors of alcohol abuse and dependence in young adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(6), 754–762.Google Scholar
  90. Guzman, L., Lippman, L., Moore, K., & O’Hare, W. (2009). Accentuating the negative: The mismatch between public perception of child well-being and official statistics. Child Indicators Research, 2, 391–416.Google Scholar
  91. Guzman, L., Caal, S., & Ramos, M. (2011). Flourishing Children Project: Developing indicators of positive adolescent development findings from cognitive interviews with parents and adolescents. Washington, DC: Child Trends.Google Scholar
  92. Hall, B. W., & Bacon, T. P. (2005). Building a foundation against violence: Impact of a school-based prevention program on elementary students. Journal of School Violence, 4, 63–83.Google Scholar
  93. Hecht, M. L., Marsiglia, F. F., Elek, E., Wagstaff, D. A., Kulis, S., Dustman, P., et al. (2003). Culturally grounded substance use prevention: An evaluation of the keepin’ it R.E.A.L. curriculum. Prevention Science, 4, 233–247.Google Scholar
  94. Herrera, C., Grossman, J. B., Kauh, T. J., Feldman, A. F., McMaken, J., & Jucovy, L. Z. (2007). Making a difference in schools: The Big Brothers Big Sisters School-based Mentoring Impact Study. Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures.Google Scholar
  95. Hodge, D. R., Cardenas, P., & Montoya, H. (2001). Substance use: Spirituality and religious participation as protective factors among rural youths. Social Work Research, 25, 153–161.Google Scholar
  96. Hogan, R., Johnson, J., & Briggs, S. (Eds.). (1997). Handbook of personality psychology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  97. Huebner, E. S. (2004). Research on assessment of life satisfaction of children and adolescents. Social Indicators Research, 66, 3–33.Google Scholar
  98. Huebner, E. S., Gilman, R., & Laughlin, J. E. (1999). A multimethod investigation of the multidimensionality of children’s well-being reports: Discriminant validity of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Social Indicators Research, 46, 1–22.Google Scholar
  99. Huebner, E. S., Funk, B. A., & Gilman, R. (2000). Cross-sectional and longitudinal psychosocial correlates of adolescent life satisfaction reports. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 16, 53–64.Google Scholar
  100. Huston, A. C., & Ripke, M. N. (2006). Middle childhood: Contexts of development. In A. C. Huston & M. N. Ripke (Eds.), Developmental contexts in middle childhood: Bridges to adolescence and adulthood (pp. 1–22). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Huston, A. C., Duncan, G. J., Granger, R., Bos, J., McLoyd, V. C., Mistry, R., et al. (2001). Work-based anti-poverty programs for parents can enhance the school performance and social behavior of children. Child Development, 72, 318–336.Google Scholar
  102. Huston, A. C., Miller, C., Richburg-Hayes, L., Duncan, G. J., Eldred, C. A., Weisner, T. S., et al. (2003). New hope for families and children: Five-year results of a program to reduce poverty and reform welfare. New York, NY: Urban Education.Google Scholar
  103. Inhelder, B., & Piaget, J. (1958). The growth of logical thinking from childhood to adolescence. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  104. Jastrzab, J., Masker, J., Bloomqiest, J., & Orr, L. (1996). Impacts of service: Final report on the evaluation of American Conservation and Youth Corps. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates.Google Scholar
  105. Jemmott, J. B., Jemmott, L. S., & Fong, G. T. (1992). Reductions in HIV risk-associated behaviors among Black male adolescents: Effects of an AIDS prevention initiative. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 372–377.Google Scholar
  106. Jemmott, J. B., Jemmott, L. S., & Fong, G. T. (1998). Abstinence and safer sex HIV risk-reduction interventions for African American adolescents. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 1529–1536.Google Scholar
  107. Jemmott, J. B., Jemmott, L. S., Fong, G. T., & McCaffree, K. (1999). Reducing HIV risk-associated sexual behavior among African American adolescents: Testing the generality of intervention effects. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 161–187.Google Scholar
  108. Johnson, M. K., Beebe, T., Mortimer, J. T., & Snyder, M. (1998). Volunteerism in adolescence: A process perspective. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 8, 309–332.Google Scholar
  109. Johnson, M. K., Elder, G. H., & Stern, M. (2005). Attachments to family and community and the young adult transition of rural youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15, 99–125.Google Scholar
  110. Jones, L. P., Harris, R., & Finnegan, D. (2002). School Attendance Demonstration Project: An evaluation of a program to motivate public assistance teens to attend and complete school in an urban school district. Research on Social Work Practice, 12, 222–237.Google Scholar
  111. Kahn, J., & Kehle, T. (1990). Comparison of cognitive-behavioral, relaxation, and self-modeling interventions for depression among middle-school students. School Psychology Review, 19, 196.Google Scholar
  112. Kane, R., Thomson, T., Roberts, C., & Bishop, B. (2003). The prevention of depressive symptoms in rural school children: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 71, 622–628.Google Scholar
  113. Karcher, M. J. (2008). The Study of Mentoring in the Learning Environment (SMILE): A randomized evaluation of the effectiveness of school-based mentoring. Prevention Science, 9, 99–113.Google Scholar
  114. Kasser, T. (2005). Frugality, generosity, and materialism in children and adolescents. In K. A. Moore & L. H. Lippman (Eds.), What do children need to flourish? Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development (pp. 357–373). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  115. Kazdin, A. E., Siegel, T. C., & Bass, D. (1992). Cognitive problem-solving skills training and parent management training in the treatment of antisocial behavior in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 733–747.Google Scholar
  116. Keith, Z. T., Keith, P. B., Troutman, G. C., Bickley, P. G., Trivette, P. S., & Singh, K. (1993). Does parental involvement affect eighth-grade student achievement? Structural analysis of national data. School Psychology Review, 22, 474–496.Google Scholar
  117. Kennedy, M. G., Mizuno, Y., Hoffman, R., Baume, C., & Strand, J. (2000). The effect of tailoring a model HIV prevention program for local adolescent target audiences. AIDS Education and Prevention, 12, 225–268.Google Scholar
  118. Kerestes, M., Youniss, J., & Metz, E. (2004). Longitudinal patterns of religious perspective and civic integration. Applied Developmental Science, 8, 39–46.Google Scholar
  119. Keyes, C. L. M. (2006). The subjective well-being of America’s youth: Toward a comprehensive assessment. Adolescent & Family Health, 4, 3–11.Google Scholar
  120. King, P. E., & Benson, P. L. (2006). Spiritual development and adolescent well-being and thriving. In E. C. Roehlkepartain, P. E. King, L. Wagener, & P. L. Benson (Eds.), The handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence (pp. 384–398). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  121. Kirby, D., Korpi, M., Barth, R. P., & Cagampang, H. H. (1997). The impact of the Postponing Sexual Involvement curriculum among youths in California. Family Planning Perspectives, 29, 100–108.Google Scholar
  122. Klimstra, T. A., Akse, J., Hale, W. W., Raaijmakers, Q. A. Q., & Meeus, W. H. J. (2010). Longitudinal associations between personality traits and problem behavior symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 273–284.Google Scholar
  123. Kumpfer, K. L., Alvarado, R., Tait, C., & Turner, C. (2002). Effectiveness of school-based family and children’s skills training for substance abuse prevention among 6-8-year-old rural children. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16(4S), 65–71.Google Scholar
  124. Lakes, K., & Hoyt, W. T. (2004). Promoting self-regulation through school-based martial arts training. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25, 283–302.Google Scholar
  125. Landor, A., Simons, L. G., Simons, R. L., Brody, G. H., & Gibbons, F. X. (2011). The role of religiosity in the relationship between parents, peers, and adolescent risky sexual behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 296–309.Google Scholar
  126. Larson, R. W. (2000). Toward a psychology of positive youth development. American Psychologist, 55, 170–183.Google Scholar
  127. Lau, S., & Roeser, R. W. (2002). Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students’ situational engagement and achievement in science. Educational Assessment, 8, 139–162.Google Scholar
  128. Lauver, S. C. (2002). Assessing the benefits of an after-school program for urban youth: An impact and process evaluation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  129. LeCroy, C. W. (2004). Experimental evaluation of “Go Grrrls” preventive intervention for adolescent girls. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 25, 457–473.Google Scholar
  130. Lerner, R. M., & Benson, P. L. (2004). Developmental assets and asset-building communities. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute.Google Scholar
  131. Lerner, R. M., & Steinberg, L. (2004). The scientific study of adolescent development: Past, present, and future. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  132. Lerner, R. M., Alberts, A. E., Anderson, P. M., & Dowling, E. M. (2006). On making humans human: Spirituality and the promotion of positive youth development. In E. C. Roehlkepartain, P. E. King, L. Wagener, & P. L. Benson (Eds.), The handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  133. Lerner, R. M., Roeser, R. W., & Phelps, E. (2008). Positive development, spirituality, and generosity in youth: An introduction to the issues. In R. M. Lerner, R. W. Roeser, & E. Phelps (Eds.), Positive youth development and spirituality: From theory to research (pp. 3–22). West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.Google Scholar
  134. Leung, C., Sanders, M. R., Leung, S., Mak, R., & Lau, J. (2003). An outcome evaluation of the implementation of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program in Hong Kong. Family Process, 42, 531–544.Google Scholar
  135. Lewis, H. A., & Kliewer, W. (1996). Hope, coping and adjustment among children with sickle cell disease: Tests of mediator and moderator models. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 21, 25–41.Google Scholar
  136. Li, Y., Bebiroglu, N., Phelps, E., Lerner, R. M., & Lerner, J. V. (2008). Out-of-school time activity participation, school engagement and positive youth development: Findings from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. Journal of Youth Development, 3(3). Retrieved from
  137. Li, Y., Lerner, J. V., & Lerner, R. M. (2010). Personal and ecological assets and academic competence in early adolescence: The mediating role of school engagement. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 801–815.Google Scholar
  138. Linley, P. A., & Joseph, S. (Eds.). (2004). Positive psychology in practice. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  139. Lippman, L. (2007). Indicators and indices of child well-being: A brief American history. Social Indicators Research, 83, 39–53.Google Scholar
  140. Lippman, L., & Keith, J. (2005). The demographics of adolescent spirituality: International perspectives. In E. Roehlkepartain, P. King, L. Wagener, & P. Benson (Eds.), Handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence (pp. 109–123). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  141. Lippman, L. H., Atienza, A., Rivers, A., & Keith, J. (2008). A developmental perspective on college and workplace readiness. Washington, DC: Child Trends.Google Scholar
  142. Lippman, L. H., Moore, K. A., & McIntosh, H. (2009). Positive indicators of child well-being: A conceptual framework, measures and methodological issues (Innocenti Working Paper). Florence, Italy: United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).Google Scholar
  143. Lippman, L. H., Moore, K. A., & McIntosh, H. (2011). Positive indicators of child well-being: A conceptual framework, measures, and methodological issues. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 6, 425–449.Google Scholar
  144. Lippman, L., Moore, K. A., Guzman, L, Ryberg, R., McIntosh, H., Kuhfeld, M., et al. (2013). Flourishing children: Defining and testing indicators of positive development. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  145. Lochman, J. E. (1992). Cognitive-behavioral intervention with aggressive boys: Three-year follow-up and preventive effects. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 60, 426–432.Google Scholar
  146. Lopez, S. J., Bouwkamp, J., Edwards, L. M., & Terramoto Pedrotti, J. (2000). Making hope happen via brief interventions. Paper presented at the second Positive Psychology Summit, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  147. Lopez, S. J., Snyder, C. R., Magyar-Moe, J. L., Edwards, L. M., Pedrottik, J. T., Janowski, K., et al. (2004). Strategies for accentuating hope. In P. A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (pp. 388–404). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  148. LoSciuto, L., Freeman, M. A., Harrington, E., Altman, B., & Lanphear, A. (1997). An outcome evaluation of the Woodrock Youth Development Project. Journal of Early Adolescence, 17, 51–66.Google Scholar
  149. LoSciuto, L., Hilbert, S. M., Fox, M. M., Porcellini, L., & Lanphear, A. (1999). A two-year evaluation of the Woodrock Youth Development Project. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 448–507.Google Scholar
  150. Ludden, A. B., & Eccles, J. S. (2007). Psychosocial, motivational, and contextual profiles of youth reporting different patterns of substance use during adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 17, 51–88.Google Scholar
  151. Lynch, K. B., Geller, S. R., & Schmidt, M. G. (2004). Multi-year evaluation of the effectiveness of a resilience-based prevention program for young children. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 24, 335–353.Google Scholar
  152. Marsh, H. W. (1990). A multidimensional, hierarchical self-concept: Theoretical and empirical justification. Educational Psychology Review, 2, 77–172.Google Scholar
  153. Masten, A. S., Cutuli, J. J., Herbers, J. E., & Reed, M. J. (2009). Resilience in development. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (2nd ed., pp. 117–132). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  154. Mau, W., & Bikos, L. H. (2000). Educational and vocational aspirations of minority and female students: A longitudinal study. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78, 186–194.Google Scholar
  155. McDermott, D., & Hastings, S. (2000). Children: Raising future hopes. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 185–199). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  156. McDermott, D., & Snyder, C. R. (2000). The great big book of hope. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.Google Scholar
  157. McFarland, D. A., & Thomas, R. J. (2006). Bowling young: How youth voluntary associations influence adult political participation. American Sociological Review, 71, 401–425.Google Scholar
  158. McKnight, C. G., Huebner, E. S., & Suldo, S. M. (2002). Relationships among stressful life events, temperament, problem behavior, and global life satisfaction in adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 677–687.Google Scholar
  159. McNeely, C. (2005). Connection to school. In K. A. Moore & L. H. Lippman (Eds.), What do children need to flourish? Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development (pp. 289–303). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  160. McNeely, C., & Falci, C. (2004). School connectedness and the transition into and out of health-risk behavior among adolescents: A comparison of social belonging and teacher support. Journal of School Health, 74, 284–292.Google Scholar
  161. Mellin, L. M., Slinkard, L. A., & Irwin, C. E. (1987). Adolescent obesity intervention: Validation of the SHAPEDOWN program. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 87, 333–338.Google Scholar
  162. Middleton, M. J., & Midgley, C. (1997). Avoiding the demonstration of lack of ability: An underexplored aspect of goal theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 710–718.Google Scholar
  163. Monahan, K. C., Steinberg, L., Cauffman, E., & Mulvey, E. P. (2009). Trajectories of antisocial behavior and psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1354–1668.Google Scholar
  164. Moore, K. A., & Lippman, L. H. (Eds.). (2005). What do children need to flourish? Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  165. Moore, K. A., & Metz, A. (2008). Random assignment evaluation studies: A guide for out-of-school time program practitioners. Research to results brief. Washington, DC: Child Trends.Google Scholar
  166. Moore, K. A., Evans, V. J., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Roth, J. (1997). What are good child outcomes? Paper presented at the Family and Child Well-Being Research Network Research Ideas and Data Needs Workshop, Airlie, VA.Google Scholar
  167. Moore, K. A., Lippman, L. H., & Brown, B. (2004). Indicators of child well-being: The promise for positive youth development. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591, 125–145.Google Scholar
  168. Moore, K. A., Bronte-Tinkew, J., & Collins, A. (2010). Practices to foster in out-of-school time programs. Research to results brief. Washington, DC: Child Trends.Google Scholar
  169. Moore, K. A., Mbwana, K., Theokas, C., Lippman, L., Bloch, M., Vandivere, S., et al. (2011). Child well-being: An index based on data of individual children. Child trends research brief. Washington, DC: Child Trends.Google Scholar
  170. National Health Promotion Associates Inc. (2002a). Frequently asked questions about the Life Skills Training program. Retrieved from
  171. National Health Promotion Associates Inc. (2002b). Life Skills Training program description. Retrieved from
  172. National Health Promotion Associates Inc. (2002c). Life Skills Training program structure. Retrieved from
  173. O’Connell, M. E., Boat, T., & Warner, K. E. (Eds.); Committee on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse Among Children, Youth, and Young Adults: Research Advances and Promising Interventions; National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  174. Oberle, E., Schonert-Reichl, A., & Zumbo, B. D. (2011). Life satisfaction in early adolescence: Personal, neighborhood, school, family, and peer influences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 889–901.Google Scholar
  175. Olsson, C. A., Bond, L., Burns, J. M., Vella-Brodrick, D. A., & Sawyer, S. M. (2003). Adolescent resilience: A concept analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 26, 1–11.Google Scholar
  176. Oman, R. F., Vesely, S., Aspy, C. B., McLeroy, K., Rodine, S., & Marshall, L. (2004). The potential protective effect of youth assets on adolescent alcohol and drug use. American Journal of Public Health, 94, 1425–1430.Google Scholar
  177. Payton, J., Weissberg, R. P., Durlak, J. A., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., Schellinger, K. B., et al. (2008). The positive impact of social and emotional learning for kindergarten to eighth-grade students: Findings from three scientific reviews. Chicago, IL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning.Google Scholar
  178. Pearce, M. J., Jones, S. J., Schwab-Stone, M. E., & Ruchkin, V. (2003). The protective effects of religiousness and parent involvement on the development of conduct problems among youth exposed to violence. Child Development, 74, 1682–1696.Google Scholar
  179. Pecukonis, E. V. (1990). A cognitive/affective empathy training program as a function of ego development in aggressive adolescent females. Adolescence, 25, 59–74.Google Scholar
  180. Perreira, K. M., Harris, K. M., & Lee, D. (2006). Making it in America: High school completion by immigrant and native youth. Demography, 43, 511–536.Google Scholar
  181. Perry, C. L., Williams, C. L., Veblen-Mortenson, S., Toomey, T. L., Komro, K. A., Anstine, P. S., et al. (1996). Project Northland: Outcomes of a communitywide alcohol use prevention program during early adolescence. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 956–965.Google Scholar
  182. Peterson, C. (2000). The future of optimism. American Psychologist, 55, 44–55.Google Scholar
  183. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. New York/Washington, DC: Oxford University Press/American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  184. Piaget, J. (1970). Piaget’s theory. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael’s manual of child psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 703–732). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  185. Pollard, E., & Lee, P. D. (2003). Child well-being: A systematic review of the literature. Social Indicators Research, 61, 59–78.Google Scholar
  186. Prinz, R. J., Blechman, E. A., & Dumas, J. E. (1994). An evaluation of peer-coping skills training for childhood aggression. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 11, 193–203.Google Scholar
  187. Qvortrup, J. (1993). Societal position of childhood: The international project Childhood as a Social Phenomenon. Childhood, 1, 119–124.Google Scholar
  188. RAND Foundation. (1998). Helping adolescents resist drugs: Project ALERT (Research highlights). Retrieved from
  189. Regnerus, M. D. (2000). Shaping schooling success: Religious socialization and educational outcomes in metropolitan public schools. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 39, 363–370.Google Scholar
  190. Regnerus, M. D., & Elder, G. H. J. (2003). Staying on track in school: Religious influences in high- and low-risk settings. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42, 633–650.Google Scholar
  191. Resnick, M. D., Bearman, P. S., Blum, R. W., Bauman, K. E., Harris, K. M., Jones, J., et al. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm. Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 823–832.Google Scholar
  192. Resnick, M. D., Ireland, M., & Borowsky, I. W. (2004). Youth violence perpetration: What protects? What predicts? Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35, 424.e1–424.e10.Google Scholar
  193. Rigby, B., & Huebner, E. S. (2005). Do causal attributions mediate the relationship between personality characteristics and life satisfaction in adolescence? Psychology in the Schools, 42, 91–99.Google Scholar
  194. Rissel, C. E., Perry, C. L., Wagenaar, A. C., Wolfson, M., Finnegan, J. R., & Komro, K. A. (1996). Empowerment, alcohol, 8th grade students and health promotion. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 15, 105–119.Google Scholar
  195. Roeser, R. W., Galloway, M., Casey-Cannon, S., Watson, C., Keller, L., & Tan, E. (2008). Identity representations in patterns of school achievement and well-being among early adolescent girls: Variable- and person-centered approaches. Journal of Early Adolescence, 28, 115–152.Google Scholar
  196. Rychen, D. S., & Salganik, L. H. (Eds.). (2003). Key competencies for a successful life and a well-functioning society. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe & Huber.Google Scholar
  197. Scales, P. C., & Benson, P. L. (2005). Prosocial orientation and community service. In K. A. Moore & L. H. Lippman (Eds.), What do children need to flourish? Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development (pp. 339–356). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  198. Scales, P. C., Benson, P. L., Roehlkepartain, E. C., Hintz, N. R., Sullivan, T. K., & Mannes, M. (2001). The role of neighborhood and community in building developmental assets for children and youth: A national study of social norms among American adults. Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 703–727.Google Scholar
  199. Scales, P. C., Benson, P. L., Roehlkepartain, E. C., Sesma, A. J., & van Dulmen, M. (2006). The role of developmental assets in predicting academic achievement: A longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 692–708.Google Scholar
  200. Scheckner, S. B. (2003). The evaluation of an anger management program for pre-adolescents in an elementary school setting. Dissertation Abstracts International. (UMI No. 3098399)Google Scholar
  201. Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1992). Effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being: Theoretical overview and empirical update. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16, 201–228.Google Scholar
  202. Schmid, K. L., Phelps, E., Kiely, M. K., Napolitano, C. M., Boyd, M. J., & Lerner, R. M. (2011). The role of adolescents’ hopeful futures in predicting positive and negative developmental trajectories: Findings from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6, 45–56.Google Scholar
  203. Seligman, M. E. P. (2006). Learned optimism: How to change your mind and your life. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  204. Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60, 410–421.Google Scholar
  205. Shek, D. T. L. (1998). Adolescent positive mental health and psychological symptoms: A longitudinal study in a Chinese context. Psychologia, 41(4), 217–225.Google Scholar
  206. Shiner, R. L. (2000). Linking childhood personality with adaptation: Evidence for continuity and change across time into late adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 310–325.Google Scholar
  207. Shiner, R. L., Masten, A. S., & Roberts, J. M. (2003). Childhood personality foreshadows adult personality and life outcomes two decades later. Journal of Personality, 71, 1145–1170.Google Scholar
  208. Shonkoff, J., & Phillips, D. E. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  209. Smith, C., & Denton, M. L. (2005). Soul searching: The religious and spiritual lives of American teenagers. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  210. Smith, C., & Faris, R. (2002). Religion and American adolescent delinquency, risk behaviors, and constructive social activities. Chapel Hill, NC: National Study of Youth and Religion.Google Scholar
  211. Snyder, C. R. (2005). Measuring hope in children. In K. A. Moore & L. H. Lippman (Eds.), What do children need to flourish? (pp. 61–73). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  212. Snyder, C. R., McDermott, D., Cook, W., & Rapoff, M. A. (2002). Hope for the journey: Helping children through good times & bad. Clinton Corners, NY: Percheron Press.Google Scholar
  213. Spencer, M. B., Fegley, S. G., & Harpalani, V. (2003). A theoretical and empirical examination of identity as coping: Linking coping resources to the self processes of African American youth. Applied Developmental Science, 7, 181–188.Google Scholar
  214. Spiewak, G. S., & Sherrod, L. R. (2012). The shared pathways of religious/spiritual engagement and positive youth development. In A. E. A. Warren, R. M. Lerner, & E. Phelps (Eds.), Thriving and spirituality among youth (pp. 167–181). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  215. Spoth, R. L., Redmond, C., Trudeau, L., & Shin, C. (2002). Longitudinal substance initiation outcomes for a universal preventive intervention combining family and school programs. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16, 129–134.Google Scholar
  216. Spoth, R., Trudeau, L., & Shin, C. (2008a). Long-term effects of universal preventive interventions on prescription drug misuse. Addiction, 103, 1160–1168.Google Scholar
  217. Spoth, R. L., Randall, G. K., Trudeau, L., Shin, C., & Redmond, C. (2008b). Substance use outcomes 5 ½ years past baseline for partnership-based, family-school preventive interventions. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 96, 57–68.Google Scholar
  218. St. Pierre, T. L. (2002). Project ALERT replication study: Penn State cooperative extension and school collaborations. Retrieved from
  219. St. Pierre, T. L., Mark, M. M., Kaltreider, D. L., & Campbell, B. (2001). Boys & Girls Clubs and school collaborations: A longitudinal study of a multicomponent substance abuse prevention program for high-risk elementary school children. Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 87–106.Google Scholar
  220. Steffel, M., & Oppenheimer, D. M. (2009). Happy by what standards? The role of interpersonal and intrapersonal comparisons in ratings of happiness. Social Indicators Research, 92, 69–80.Google Scholar
  221. Steinberg, L. (1993). Adolescence. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  222. Stein-Seroussi, A. (2002). State incentive grant and Project ALERT provide relief to hurricane-stricken county. Retrieved from
  223. Stepp, S. D., Pardini, D. A., Loeber, R., & Morris, N. A. (2011). The relation between adolescent social competence and young adult delinquency and educational attainment among at-risk youth: The mediating role of peer delinquency. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56, 457–465.Google Scholar
  224. Stern, R., & Repa, J. T. (2000). A study of the efficacy of computerized skill building for adolescents: Reducing aggression and increasing pro-social behavior. New York, NY: New York City Board of Education.Google Scholar
  225. Suldo, S. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2004). Does life satisfaction moderate the effects of stressful life events on psychopathological behavior in adolescence? School Psychology Quarterly, 19, 93–105.Google Scholar
  226. Thomson, K. (2010). Promoting positive development in middle childhood: The influence of child characteristics, parents, schools, and neighbourhoods (Master’s thesis). University of British Columbia, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  227. Thornton, A., & Camburn, D. (1989). Religious participation and adolescent sexual behavior and attitudes. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51, 641–652.Google Scholar
  228. Trenholm, C., Devaney, B., Fortson, K., Quay, L., Wheeler, J., & Clark, M. (2007). Impacts of four Title V, Section 510 abstinence education programs. Princeton: Mathematica Policy Research.Google Scholar
  229. Trinidad, D. R., & Johnson, C. A. (2002). The association between emotional intelligence and early adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 95–105.Google Scholar
  230. Trudeau, L., Spoth, R., Lillehoj, C., Redmond, C., & Wickrama, K. A. S. (2003). Effects of a preventive intervention on adolescent substance use initiation, expectancies, and refusal intentions. Prevention Science, 4, 109–122.Google Scholar
  231. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2002). Project ALERT. SAMHSA Model Programs. Retrieved from
  232. United Nations. (2009). United Nations Treaty Collection: Status of treaties: Convention on the Rights of the Child. Retrieved from
  233. Urban, J. B., Lewin-Bizan, S., & Lerner, R. M. (2010). The role of intentional self regulation, lower neighborhood ecological assets, and activity involvement in youth developmental outcomes. Retrieved from 4-H National Headquarters:
  234. van Ryzin, M. J., Gravely, A. A., & Roseth, C. J. (2009). Autonomy, belongingness, and engagement in school as contributors to adolescent psychological well-being. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 1–12.Google Scholar
  235. Vaughn, S. R., & Ridley, C. A. (1984). Interpersonal problem-solving skills training with aggressive young children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 5, 213–223.Google Scholar
  236. Waksman, S. A. (1984). Assertion training with adolescents. Adolescence, 19, 123–130.Google Scholar
  237. Wallace, J. M., & Forman, T. A. (1998). Religion’s role in promoting health and reducing risk among American youth. Health Education and Behavior, 25, 721–741.Google Scholar
  238. Warren, A. E. A., Lerner, R. M., & Phelps, E. (2012). Research perspectives and future possibilities in the study of thriving and spirituality: A view of the issues. In A. E. A. Warren, R. M. Lerner, & E. Phelps (Eds.), Thriving and spirituality among youth (pp. 1–16). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  239. Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 202–209.Google Scholar
  240. Wentzel, K. R., Filisetti, L., & Looney, L. (2007). Adolescent prosocial behavior: The role of self-processes and contextual cues. Child Development, 78, 895–910.Google Scholar
  241. Wheeler, S. B. (2010). Effects of self-esteem and academic performance on adolescent decision-making: An examination of early sexual intercourse and illegal substance use. Journal of Adolescent Health, 47, 582–590.Google Scholar
  242. Williams, J. H., Ayers, C. D., Abbott, R. D., Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano, R. F. (1999). Racial differences in risk factors for delinquency and substance use among adolescents. Social Work Research, 23, 241–256.Google Scholar
  243. Wills, T. A., DuHamel, K., & Vaccaro, D. (1995). Activity and mood temperament as predictors of adolescent substance use: Test of a self-regulation mediational model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 901–916.Google Scholar
  244. Wills, T. A., Sandy, J. M., & Shinar, O. (1999). Cloninger’s constructs related to substance use level and problems in late adolescence: A mediational model based on self-control and coping motives. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7, 122–134.Google Scholar
  245. Wills, T. A., Yaeger, A. M., & Sandy, J. M. (2003). Buffering effect of religiosity for adolescent substance use. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17, 24–31.Google Scholar
  246. Wright, L. S., Frost, C. J., & Wisecarver, S. J. (1993). Church attendance, meaningfulness of religion, and depressive symptomatology among adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 22, 559–568.Google Scholar
  247. Zaff, J. F., Moore, K. A., Papillo, A. R., & Williams, S. (2003). Implications of extracurricular activity participation during adolescence on positive outcomes. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18, 599–630.Google Scholar
  248. Zill, N., & Brim, O. G. (1975, Fall). Childhood social indicators. Newsletter. Society for Research in Child Development.Google Scholar
  249. Zinnbauer, B. J., Pargament, K. I., Cole, B., Rye, M. S., Butter, E. M., Belavich, T. G., et al. (1997). Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzying the fuzzy. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 36, 549–564.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura H. Lippman
    • 1
  • Renee Ryberg
    • 1
  • Mary Terzian
    • 1
  • Kristin A. Moore
    • 1
  • Jill Humble
    • 1
  • Hugh McIntosh
    • 1
  1. 1.Child TrendsBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations