Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers

2011 Edition
| Editors: Vijay P. Singh, Pratap Singh, Umesh K. Haritashya

Anisotropic Ice Flow

  • Olivier GagliardiniEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2642-2_658

Definition

Anisotropy. A material is anisotropic if it has a response that differs according to the direction of the loading.

Ice anisotropy. In this article, we focus on the viscous part of the ice deformation. Elastic response of ice is also anisotropic but much less pronounced than its viscous part.

Introduction

The size of an ice crystal varies from few millimeters to few tens of centimeters, whereas the typical size of a glacier or an ice sheet is few kilometers to thousands of kilometers. The strong viscous anisotropy of the ice crystal and the way the crystals are orientated influence the flow of glaciers and ice sheets. This article explains how these very different scales are related and coupled, leading to special features that can only be explained by an anisotropic behavior.

Anisotropy of the ice crystal

Terrestrial ice presents a hexagonal symmetry that induces a strong viscous anisotropic behavior. The principal mechanism responsible for the crystal deformation is the...

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Bibliography

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'EnvironnementCNRS/UJF, GrenobleFrance