Arctic hydrometeorology; Arctic water cycle; Cold region climatology; Northern hydrology
Arctic hydroclimatology is the study of water in the climate system of the far north. It can be differentiated from Arctic hydrometeorology in that it is generally concerned with longer than synoptic timescales. Physical climatologists typically focus on trying to quantify the fluxes and stocks of freshwater in the Arctic. The domain of interest includes the Arctic hydrologic catchment, which extends as far south as 45°N, but also includes transport of freshwater in the ocean and atmosphere in and out of the Northern Regions.
Fluxes of liquid, vapor, and frozen water between the land and the atmosphere include precipitation, evapotranspiration, and sublimation. Water stored on land includes that in snow cover, glaciers, lakes, rivers, in vegetation, and in ice-rich permafrost. Fluxes of water in the coastal areas include river runoff, air–sea interactions, and atmospheric...
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