Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers

2011 Edition
| Editors: Vijay P. Singh, Pratap Singh, Umesh K. Haritashya

Acidity of Glacier Ice

  • Cunde Xiao
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2642-2_6


Acidity of snow; Alkalinity of glacier ice


The acidity of glacier ice is the degree of acidity (content of [H+]) of glacier ice, reflecting the dissolved anionic contents among the grain boundaries of glacier ice.

Acidity of glacier ice

The acidity of glacial ice is determined by the anionic contents of aerosols captured by snow and ice. When no extra ions are in input, then ionic balance in current polar snow/ice can be represented as:
$$\eqalign{\Delta {\text{C}} = \ [{\text{N}}{{\text{a}}^{+} }] + [{\text{NH}}_4{^+} ] + [{{\text{K}}^{+} }] + [{{\text{H}}^{+} }] + [{\text{C}}{{\text{a}}^{2 + }}] \cr + [{\text{M}}{{\text{g}}^{2 + }}] - [{{\text{F}}^{-} }] - [{\text{C}}{{\text{l}}^{-} }] - [{\text{NO}}_3{^-} ] - [{\text{SO}}_4{^2}{^-} ] \cr - [{\text{C}}{{\text{H}}_3}{\text{SO}}_3{^-} ] - [{\text{HCO}}{{\text{O}}^{-} }] - [{\text{C}}{{\text{H}}_3}{\text{CO}}{{\text{O}}^{-} }] }$$
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cunde Xiao
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric SciencesCold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouChina