Comorbidities of Headache Disorders

  • Markus SchürksEmail author
  • Dawn C. Buse
  • Shuu-Jiun Wang
Reference work entry


Headaches are common disorders and migraine is most intensively investigated due to its high prevalence and often highly disabling character. Many conditions that are likewise prevalent have been described comorbid with migraine, and an increase of many comorbid conditions is seen among those with migraine with aura and higher frequency of headache. Well-established comorbidities include cardiovascular, psychiatric, neurological, and other pain disorders. With regard to cardiovascular disorders an association between migraine with aura and ischemic stroke has been most consistently described. Migraine with aura confers a twofold increased risk. Younger age, female gender, smoking, and oral contraceptive use seem to further raise the risk among migraineurs. With regard to psychiatric disorders, those with migraine are at increased risk of major depression, anxiety, panic disorder, bipolar disorder, abuse and neglect, and suicidal ideation or attempts. Common neurologic comorbidities include epilepsy and restless leg syndrome. Potential explanations for increased comorbidities will be explored. The complex network of an association between migraine and many other comorbid conditions is likely due to shared genetic factors that are further modified by environmental factors.


Ischemic Stroke Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Panic Disorder Migraine With Aura Headache Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adami A, Rossato G, Cerini R, Thijs VN, Pozzi-Mucelli R, Anzola GP, Del Sette M, Finocchi C, Meneghetti G, Zanferrari C, Group SAMS (2008) Right-to-left shunt does not increase white matter lesion load in migraine with aura patients. Neurology 71:101–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed B, Bairey Merz CN, McClure C, Johnson BD, Reis SE, Bittner V, Pepine CJ, Sharaf BL, Sopko G, Kelsey SF, Shaw L (2006) Migraines, angiographic coronary artery disease and cardiovascular outcomes in women. Am J Med 119:670–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashina S, Buse DC, Maizels M, Manack A, Serrano D, Turkel C, Lipton RB (2010a) Depression: a risk factor for migraine chronification: results from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) study. 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashina S, Buse DC, Maizels M, Manack A, Serrano D, Turkel CC, Lipton RB (2010b) Self-reported anxiety as a risk factor for migraine chronification. Results from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) study. 52nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Headache Society, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  5. Baskin SM, Smitherman TA (2009) Migraine and psychiatric disorders: comorbidities, mechanisms, and clinical applications. Neurol Sci 30(Suppl 1):S61–S65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bekkelund SI, Salvesen R (2003) Prevalence of head trauma in patients with difficult headache: the North Norway Headache Study. Headache 43:59–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bianchi A, Pitari G, Amenta V, Giuliano F, Gallina M, Costa R, Ferlito S (1996) Endothelial, haemostatic and haemorheological modifications in migraineurs. Artery 22:93–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bigal ME, Lipton RB (2006a) Modifiable risk factors for migraine progression. Headache 46:1334–1343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bigal ME, Lipton RB (2006b) Obesity is a risk factor for transformed migraine but not chronic tension-type headache. Neurology 67:252–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bigal ME, Liberman JN, Lipton RB (2006) Obesity and migraine: a population study. Neurology 66:545–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bigal ME, Kurth T, Santanello N, Buse D, Golden W, Robbins M, Lipton RB (2010) Migraine and cardiovascular disease: a population-based study. Neurology 74:628–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Breslau N (1992) Migraine, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Neurology 42:392–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Breslau N (1998) Psychiatric comorbidity in migraine. Cephalalgia 18(Suppl 22):56–58, discussion 58-61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Breslau N, Davis GC (1993) Migraine, physical health and psychiatric disorder: a prospective epidemiologic study in young adults. J Psychiatr Res 27:211–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Breslau N, Rasmussen BK (2001) The impact of migraine: Epidemiology, risk factors, and co-morbidities. Neurology 56:S4–S12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Breslau N, Davis GC, Andreski P (1991) Migraine, psychiatric disorders, and suicide attempts: an epidemiologic study of young adults. Psychiatry Res 37:11–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Breslau N, Davis GC, Schultz LR, Peterson EL (1994a) Joint 1994 Wolff Award Presentation. Migraine and major depression: a longitudinal study. Headache 34:387–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Breslau N, Merikangas K, Bowden CL (1994b) Comorbidity of migraine and major affective disorders. Neurology 44:S17–S22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Breslau N, Schultz LR, Stewart WF, Lipton RB, Lucia VC, Welch KM (2000) Headache and major depression: is the association specific to migraine? Neurology 54:308–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brodtkorb E, Bakken IJ, Sjaastad O (2008) Comorbidity of migraine and epilepsy in a Norwegian community. Eur J Neurol 15:1421–1423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Buse DC, Manack A, Serrano D, Turkel C, Lipton RB (2010) Sociodemographic and comorbidity profiles of chronic migraine and episodic migraine sufferers. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. doi:10.1136/jnnp. 2009.192492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Bautista LE, Sharma P (2004) Meta-analysis of genetic studies in ischemic stroke: thirty-two genes involving approximately 18,000 cases and 58,000 controls. Arch Neurol 61:1652–1661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chen PK, Fuh JL, Chen SP, Wang SJ (2010) Association between restless legs syndrome and migraine. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 81(5):524–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Clarke T, Baskurt Z, Strug LJ, Pal DK (2009) Evidence of shared genetic risk factors for migraine and rolandic epilepsy. Epilepsia 50:2428–2433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Collaborative Group for the Study of Stroke in Young Women (1975) Oral contraceptives and stroke in young women. Associated risk factors. JAMA 231:718–722Google Scholar
  26. Couch JR, Bearss C (2001) Chronic daily headache in the posttrauma syndrome: relation to extent of head injury. Headache 41:559–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Couch JR, Lipton RB, Stewart WF, Scher AI (2007) Head or neck injury increases the risk of chronic daily headache: a population-based study. Neurology 69:1169–1177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. D’Andrea G, Toldo M, Cortelazzo S, Milone FF (1982) Platelet activity in migraine. Headache 22:207–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Del Sette M, Dinia L, Bonzano L, Roccatagliata L, Finocchi C, Parodi RC, Sivori G, Gandolfo C (2008) White matter lesions in migraine and right-to-left shunt: a conventional and diffusion MRI study. Cephalalgia 28:376–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Diener HC, Kurth T, Dodick D (2007) Patent foramen ovale, stroke, and cardiovascular disease in migraine. Curr Opin Neurol 20:310–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Donaghy M, Chang CL, Poulter N (2002) Duration, frequency, recency, and type of migraine and the risk of ischaemic stroke in women of childbearing age. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 73:747–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dworkin SF, Von Korff M, LeResche L (1990) Multiple pains and psychiatric disturbance An epidemiologic investigation. Arch Gen Psychiatry 47:239–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Etminan M, Takkouche B, Isorna FC, Samii A (2005) Risk of ischaemic stroke in people with migraine: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. BMJ 330:63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Feinstein AR (1970) The pretherapeutic classification of comorbidity in chronic disease. J Chron Dis 23:455–468Google Scholar
  35. Fiermonte G, Annulli A, Pierelli F (1999) Transcranial Doppler evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics in migraineurs during prophylactic treatment with flunarizine. Cephalalgia 19:492–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fuh JL, Wang SJ, Juang KD, Lu SR, Liao YC, Chen SP (2010) Relationship between childhood physical maltreatment and migraine in adolescents. Headache 50:761–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Garg P, Servoss SJ, Wu JC, Bajwa ZH, Selim MH, Dineen A, Kuntz RE, Cook EF, Mauri L (2010) Lack of association between migraine headache and patent foramen ovale: results of a case-control study. Circulation 121:1406–1412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gomi S, Gotoh F, Komatsumoto S, Ishikawa Y, Araki N, Hamada J (1989) Sweating function and retinal vasomotor reactivity in migraine. Cephalalgia 9:179–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Guidetti V, Galli F, Fabrizi P, Giannantoni AS, Napoli L, Bruni O, Trillo S (1998) Headache and psychiatric comorbidity: clinical aspects and outcome in an 8-year follow-up study. Cephalalgia 18:455–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hagen K, Einarsen C, Zwart JA, Svebak S, Bovim G (2002) The co-occurrence of headache and musculoskeletal symptoms amongst 51 050 adults in Norway. Eur J Neurol 9:527–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hall GC, Brown MM, Mo J, MacRae KD (2004) Triptans in migraine: the risks of stroke, cardiovascular disease, and death in practice. Neurology 62:563–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hamelsky SW, Lipton RB (2006) Psychiatric comorbidity of migraine. Headache 46:1327–1333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Haut SR, Bigal ME, Lipton RB (2006) Chronic disorders with episodic manifestations: focus on epilepsy and migraine. Lancet Neurol 5:148–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Henrich JB, Horwitz RI (1989) A controlled study of ischemic stroke risk in migraine patients. J Clin Epidemiol 42:773–780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hering-Hanit R, Friedman Z, Schlesinger I, Ellis M (2001) Evidence for activation of the coagulation system in migraine with aura. Cephalalgia 21:137–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Juang KD, Wang SJ, Fuh JL, Lu SR, Su TP (2000) Comorbidity of depressive and anxiety disorders in chronic daily headache and its subtypes. Headache 40:818–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kastrup A, Thomas C, Hartmann C, Schabet M (1998) Cerebral blood flow and CO2 reactivity in interictal migraineurs: a transcranial Doppler study. Headache 38:608–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kruit MC, van Buchem MA, Hofman PA, Bakkers JT, Terwindt GM, Ferrari MD, Launer LJ (2004) Migraine as a risk factor for subclinical brain lesions. JAMA 291:427–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kruit MC, Launer LJ, Ferrari MD, van Buchem MA (2006) Brain stem and cerebellar hyperintense lesions in migraine. Stroke 37:1109–1112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kurth T (2007) Migraine and ischaemic vascular events. Cephalalgia 27:967–975Google Scholar
  51. Kurth T, Slomke MA, Kase CS, Cook NR, Lee IM, Gaziano JM, Diener HC, Buring JE (2005) Migraine, headache, and the risk of stroke in women: a prospective study. Neurology 64:1020–1026PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kurth T, Gaziano JM, Cook NR, Logroscino G, Diener HC, Buring JE (2006) Migraine and risk of cardiovascular disease in women. JAMA 296:283–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kurth T, Gaziano JM, Cook NR, Bubes V, Logroscino G, Diener HC, Buring JE (2007) Migraine and risk of cardiovascular disease in men. Arch Intern Med 167:795–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kurth T, Ridker P, Buring J (2008a) Migraine and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. Cephalalgia 28:49–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kurth T, Schürks M, Logroscino G, Gaziano JM, Buring JE (2008b) Migraine, vascular risk, and cardiovascular events in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ 337:a636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kurth T, Schürks M, Logroscino G, Buring JE (2009) Migraine frequency and risk of cardiovascular disease in women. Neurology 73:581–588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Lanteri-Minet M, Radat F, Chautard MH, Lucas C (2005) Anxiety and depression associated with migraine: influence on migraine subjects’ disability and quality of life, and acute migraine management. Pain 118:319–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lee ST, Chu K, Jung KH, Kim DH, Kim EH, Choe VN, Kim JH, Im WS, Kang L, Park JE, Park HJ, Park HK, Song EC, Lee SK, Kim M, Roh JK (2008) Decreased number and function of endothelial progenitor cells in patients with migraine. Neurology 70:1510–1517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Leniger T, von den Driesch S, Isbruch K, Diener HC, Hufnagel A (2003) Clinical characteristics of patients with comorbidity of migraine and epilepsy. Headache 43:672–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lewis SJ, Ebrahim S, Davey Smith G (2005) Meta-analysis of MTHFR 677C->T polymorphism and coronary heart disease: does totality of evidence support causal role for homocysteine and preventive potential of folate? BMJ 331:1053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Liew G, Wang JJ, Mitchell P (2007) Migraine and coronary heart disease mortality: a prospective cohort study. Cephalalgia 27:368–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lipton RB, Silberstein SD (1994) Why study the comorbidity of migraine? Neurology 44:S4–S5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Low NC, Du Fort GG, Cervantes P (2003) Prevalence, clinical correlates, and treatment of migraine in bipolar disorder. Headache 43:940–949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lu SR, Fuh JL, Juang KD, Wang SJ (2000) Repetitive intravenous prochlorperazine treatment of patients with refractory chronic daily headache. Headache 40:724–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lu SR, Fuh JL, Chen WT, Juang KD, Wang SJ (2001) Chronic daily headache in Taipei, Taiwan: prevalence, follow-up and outcome predictors. Cephalalgia 21:980–986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ludvigsson P, Hesdorffer D, Olafsson E, Kjartansson O, Hauser WA (2006) Migraine with aura is a risk factor for unprovoked seizures in children. Ann Neurol 59:210–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. MacClellan LR, Giles W, Cole J, Wozniak M, Stern B, Mitchell BD, Kittner SJ (2007) Probable migraine with visual aura and risk of ischemic stroke: the stroke prevention in young women study. Stroke 38:2438–2445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Mahmood T, Romans S, Silverstone T (1999) Prevalence of migraine in bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 52:239–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. McWilliams LA, Goodwin RD, Cox BJ (2004) Depression and anxiety associated with three pain conditions: results from a nationally representative sample. Pain 111:77–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Merikangas KR, Risch NJ, Merikangas JR, Weissman MM, Kidd KK (1988) Migraine and depression: association and familial transmission. J Psychiatr Res 22:119–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Merikangas KR, Angst J, Isler H (1990) Migraine and psychopathology. Results of the Zurich cohort study of young adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry 47:849–853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Merikangas KR, Whitaker AE, Isler H, Angst J (1994) The Zurich Study: XXIII. Epidemiology of headache syndromes in the Zurich cohort study of young adults. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 244:145–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Napoli R, Guardasole V, Zarra E, Matarazzo M, D’Anna C, Sacca F, Affuso F, Cittadini A, Carrieri PB, Sacca L (2009) Vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction in patients with migraine. Neurology 72:2111–2114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Nozari A, Dilekoz E, Sukhotinsky I, Stein T, Eikermann-Haerter K, Liu C, Wang Y, Frosch MP, Waeber C, Ayata C, Moskowitz MA (2010) Microemboli may link spreading depression, migraine aura, and patent foramen ovale. Ann Neurol 67:221–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. O’Keeffe ST, Tsapatsaris NP, Beetham WP Jr (1993) Association between Raynaud’s phenomenon and migraine in a random population of hospital employees. J Rheumatol 20:1187–1188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Ottman R, Lipton RB (1996) Is the comorbidity of epilepsy and migraine due to a shared genetic susceptibility? Neurology 47:918–924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Pesa J, Lage MJ (2004) The medical costs of migraine and comorbid anxiety and depression. Headache 44:562–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Peterlin BL (2009) Post-traumatic stress disorder in migraine: further comments. Headache 49:787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Rhode AM, Hosing VG, Happe S, Biehl K, Young P, Evers S (2007) Comorbidity of migraine and restless legs syndrome–a case-control study. Cephalalgia 27:1255–1260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Rose KM, Carson AP, Sanford CP, Stang PE, Brown CA, Folsom AR, Szklo M (2004) Migraine and other headaches: associations with Rose angina and coronary heart disease. Neurology 63:2233–2239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Rose KM, Wong TY, Carson AP, Couper DJ, Klein R, Sharrett AR (2007) Migraine and retinal microvascular abnormalities: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Neurology 68:1694–1700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Rundek T, Elkind MS, Di Tullio MR, Carrera E, Jin Z, Sacco RL, Homma S (2008) Patent foramen ovale and migraine: a cross-sectional study from the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS). Circulation 118:1419–1424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Sakai F, Meyer JS (1979) Abnormal cerebrovascular reactivity in patients with migraine and cluster headache. Headache 19:257–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Scher AI, Stewart WF, Ricci JA, Lipton RB (2003) Factors associated with the onset and remission of chronic daily headache in a population-based study. Pain 106:81–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Scher AI, Bigal ME, Lipton RB (2005a) Comorbidity of migraine. Curr Opin Neurol 18:305–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Scher AI, Terwindt GM, Picavet HS, Verschuren WM, Ferrari MD, Launer LJ (2005b) Cardiovascular risk factors and migraine: the GEM population-based study. Neurology 64:614–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Scher AI, Stewart WF, Lipton RB (2006) The comorbidity of headache with other pain syndromes. Headache 46:1416–1423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Schur EA, Noonan C, Buchwald D, Goldberg J, Afari N (2009) A twin study of depression and migraine: evidence for a shared genetic vulnerability. Headache 49:1493–1502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Schürks M, Zee RY, Buring JE, Kurth T (2008) Interrelationships among the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism, migraine, and cardiovascular disease. Neurology 71:505–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Schürks M, Berger K, Glynn RJ, Buring JE, Kurth T (2009a) Association between migraine and restless legs syndrome in women. Neurology 72:A182Google Scholar
  91. Schürks M, Rist PM, Bigal ME, Buring JE, Lipton RB, Kurth T (2009b) Migraine and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 339:b3914. doi:10.1136/bmj.b3914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Schürks M, Zee RYL, Buring JE, Kurth T (2009c) ACE D/I Polymorphism, migraine, and cardiovascular disease in women. Neurology 72:650–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Schürks M, Rist PM, Kurth T (2010) MTHFR 677C>T and ACE D/I polymorphisms in migraine: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Headache 50:588–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Schwaiger J, Kiechl S, Stockner H, Knoflach M, Werner P, Rungger G, Gasperi A, Willeit J (2008) Burden of atherosclerosis and risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with migraine. Neurology 71:937–943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Schwedt TJ, Demaerschalk BM, Dodick DW (2008) Patent foramen ovale and migraine: a quantitative systematic review. Cephalalgia 28:531–540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Seligman MEP (1975) Helplessness: on depression, development, and death. W.H. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  97. Sheftell FD, Tepper SJ, Lay CL, Bigal ME (2007) Post-traumatic headache: emphasis on chronic types following mild closed head injury. Neurol Sci 28(Suppl 2):S203–S207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Silvestrini M, Baruffaldi R, Bartolini M, Vernieri F, Lanciotti C, Matteis M, Troisi E, Provinciali L (2004) Basilar and middle cerebral artery reactivity in patients with migraine. Headache 44:29–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Smitherman TA, Maizels M, Penzien DB (2008a) Headache chronification: screening and behavioral management of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders. Headache 48:45–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Smitherman TA, Penzien DB, Maizels M (2008b) Anxiety disorders and migraine intractability and progression. Curr Pain Headache Rep 12:224–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Smoller JW, Pollack MH, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Barton B, Hendrix SL, Jackson RD, Dicken T, Oberman A, Sheps DS, Women's Health Initiative I (2003) Prevalence and correlates of panic attacks in postmenopausal women: results from an ancillary study to the women’s health initiative. Arch Intern Med 163:2041–2050PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Sternfeld B, Stang P, Sidney S (1995) Relationship of migraine headaches to experience of chest pain and subsequent risk for myocardial infarction. Neurology 45:2135–2142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Stewart WF, Linet MS, Celentano DD (1989) Migraine headaches and panic attacks. Psychosom Med 51:559–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Stewart W, Breslau N, Keck PE Jr (1994) Comorbidity of migraine and panic disorder. Neurology 44:S23–S27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Tietjen GE, Al-Qasmi MM, Shukairy MS (2002a) Livedo reticularis and migraine: a marker for stroke risk? Headache 42:352–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Tietjen GE, Gottwald L, Al-Qasmi MM, Gunda P, Khuder SA (2002b) Migraine is associated with livedo reticularis: a prospective study. Headache 42:263–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Tietjen GE, Al-Qasmi MM, Gunda P, Herial NA (2006) Sneddon's syndrome: another migraine-stroke association? Cephalalgia 26:225–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Tietjen GE, Al-Qasmi MM, Athanas K, Utley C, Herial NA (2007a) Altered hemostasis in migraineurs studied with a dynamic flow system. Thromb Res 119:217–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Tietjen GE, Brandes JL, Digre KB, Baggaley S, Martin V, Recober A, Geweke LO, Hafeez F, Aurora SK, Herial NA, Utley C, Khuder SA (2007b) High prevalence of somatic symptoms and depression in women with disabling chronic headache. Neurology 68:134–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Tietjen GE, Brandes JL, Peterlin BL, Eloff A, Dafer RM, Stein MR, Drexler E, Martin VT, Hutchinson S, Aurora SK, Recober A, Herial NA, Utley C, White L, Khuder SA (2009a) Allodynia in migraine: association with comorbid pain conditions. Headache 49:1333–1344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Tietjen GE, Herial NA, White L, Utley C, Kosmyna JM, Khuder SA (2009b) Migraine and biomarkers of endothelial activation in young women. Stroke 40:2977–2982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Tietjen GE, Brandes JL, Peterlin BL, Eloff A, Dafer RM, Stein MR, Drexler E, Martin VT, Hutchinson S, Aurora SK, Recober A, Herial NA, Utley C, White L, Khuder SA (2010a) Childhood maltreatment and migraine (Part I). Prevalence and adult revictimization: a multicenter headache clinic survey. Headache 50:20–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Tietjen GE, Brandes JL, Peterlin BL, Eloff A, Dafer RM, Stein MR, Drexler E, Martin VT, Hutchinson S, Aurora SK, Recober A, Herial NA, Utley C, White L, Khuder SA (2010b) Childhood maltreatment and migraine (Part II). Emotional abuse as a risk factor for headache chronification. Headache 50:32–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Tietjen GE, Brandes JL, Peterlin BL, Eloff A, Dafer RM, Stein MR, Drexler E, Martin VT, Hutchinson S, Aurora SK, Recober A, Herial NA, Utley C, White L, Khuder SA (2010c) Childhood maltreatment and migraine (Part III). Association with comorbid pain conditions. Headache 50:42–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Toldo I, Perissinotto E, Menegazzo F, Boniver C, Sartori S, Salviati L, Clementi M, Montagna P, Battistella PA (2010) Comorbidity between headache and epilepsy in a pediatric headache center. J Headache Pain 11(3):235–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Totaro R, Marini C, De Matteis G, Di Napoli M, Carolei A (1997) Cerebrovascular reactivity in migraine during headache-free intervals. Cephalalgia 17:191–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Tzourio C, Tehindrazanarivelo A, Iglesias S, Alperovitch A, Chedru F, d’Anglejan-Chatillon J, Bousser MG (1995) Case-control study of migraine and risk of ischaemic stroke in young women. BMJ 310:830–833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Vanmolkot FH, de Hoon JN (2007) Increased C-reactive protein in young adult patients with migraine. Cephalalgia 27:843–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Vanmolkot FH, Van Bortel LM, de Hoon JN (2007) Altered arterial function in migraine of recent onset. Neurology 68:1563–1570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Velentgas P, Cole JA, Mo J, Sikes CR, Walker AM (2004) Severe vascular events in migraine patients. Headache 44:642–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Von Korff M, Crane P, Lane M, Miglioretti DL, Simon G, Saunders K, Stang P, Brandenburg N, Kessler R (2005) Chronic spinal pain and physical-mental comorbidity in the United States: results from the national comorbidity survey replication. Pain 113:331–339Google Scholar
  122. Wang SJ, Fuh JL, Lu SR, Juang KD (2001) Quality of life differs among headache diagnoses: analysis of SF-36 survey in 901 headache patients. Pain 89:285–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Wang SJ, Juang KD, Fuh JL, Lu SR (2007) Psychiatric comorbidity and suicide risk in adolescents with chronic daily headache. Neurology 68:1468–1473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Wang SJ, Fuh JL, Juang KD, Lu SR (2009) Migraine and suicidal ideation in adolescents aged 13 to 15 years. Neurology 72:1146–1152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Welch KM, Brandes AW, Salerno L, Brandes JL (2006) C-reactive protein may be increased in migraine patients who present with complex clinical features. Headache 46:197–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Winter AC, Berger K, Buring JE, Kurth T (2009) Body mass index, migraine, migraine frequency and migraine features in women. Cephalalgia 29:269–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Younes RP, DeLong GR, Neiman G, Rosner B (1986) Manic-depressive illness in children: treatment with lithium carbonate. J Child Neurol 1:364–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Zintzaras E, Raman G, Kitsios G, Lau J (2008) Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene polymorphic variant as a marker of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 168:1077–1089PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Zwart JA, Dyb G, Hagen K, Odegard KJ, Dahl AA, Bovim G, Stovner LJ (2003) Depression and anxiety disorders associated with headache frequency. The Nord-Trondelag Health Study. Eur J Neurol 10:147–152PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Lifting The Burden 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Schürks
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Dawn C. Buse
    • 3
    • 4
  • Shuu-Jiun Wang
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyUniversity Hospital EssenEssenGermany
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyAlbert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva UniversityBronxUSA
  4. 4.Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology of Yeshiva UniversityMontefiore Headache CenterBronxUSA
  5. 5.Department of NeurologyNeurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General HospitalTaipeiTaiwan
  6. 6.Department of NeurologyNational Yang-Ming University School of MedicineTaipeiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations