Convergence and Divergence of Nyāya and Tattvavāda (Dvaita) Theories of Logic

  • Vaishnavi Nishankar
Living reference work entry


Indian epistemology has delved deep into the analysis of logic as a component of cognition. It is considered as an essential constituent or, rather, an essential process of inferential cognition. Most Indian schools of thought, except the materialists called Cārvākas, recognize inferential cognition as a kind of cognition. The varied schools developed conclusive theories of inference, each with their own unique contributions, resulting in a vast body of literature, often polemical, in this field of analysis.

This chapter focuses on providing an introduction to the various constituents and the logical process of inferential cognition according to the Indian intellectual tradition using illustrations, both classic and contemporary, for elucidation. It particularly focuses on the doctrines of the Nyāya and Dvaita Schools of philosophy in this regard and aims to objectively bring out the points of convergences and divergences in the theories of logic of the two schools and tries to provide the background for the divergences to clarify the reasons for the differences in their view points.


Theories of logic Traditional Indian epistemology Yukti-shastra/śāstra Inferential cognition Inference Naiyayikas/Naiyāyikas Dvaitins Anumiti Anumana/anumāna Paramarsha/parāmarśa Convergence and divergence Fallacies of reason Erroneous cognition Deduction Invariable relation Vyāpti Pervasion Vyaptigraha/vyāptigraha Hypothetical logic Tarka 


  1. Athalye, and Bodas, eds. 1963. Tarkasangraha of Annambhatta. Pune: BORI.Google Scholar
  2. Granthamālā, U.V. 1978. Nyayaparisuddhi by Sri Vedanta Desika, Anumānādhyāya, Madras.Google Scholar
  3. Madhavananda, Swami. 1942. Vedānta-paribhāṣā of Dharmarāja Adhvarīndra. Chapter II Inference. Belur Math/Howrah/West Bengal: Swami Vimuktananda.Google Scholar
  4. Shastri, Narayanacharana, and Shvetavaikuntha Shastri, eds. 1995. The Kashi Sanskrit Series – 212: Nyayasiddhantamuktavali of Vishvanatha Pancanan. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan.Google Scholar
  5. Vaishnavi Rao, R. 2004. Dvaitavedānte anumānaṁ tadaṅgāni ca, Thesis submitted to Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, Tirupati.Google Scholar
  6. Varakhedi, Shrinivasa. 2011. The path of proofs-Pramāṇa-paddhati of Śrī Jayatīrtha. Chapter II Inference. Manipal: Manipal University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Tr. Mahamahopadhyaya Satisa Chandra Vidyabhushana. 1913. Vol. III: The Nyaya Sutras of Gotama. In The sacred books of the Hindus, Book I Chapters 1 & 2, ed. B.D. Basu. Allahabad: Panini Office.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research ScholarMumbaiIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Srinivas Varakhedi
    • 1
  1. 1.Karnataka Samskrit UniversityBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations