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Johann Bauschinger (∗June 11th, 1834 in Nürnberg, Germany; †November 25th, 1893 in Munich, Germany) was a mechanical engineer and physician and professor with the focus on mechanics of materials.Open image in new window
Family and Education
His father Johann Michael Bauschinger was a combmaker in Nürnberg. From 1850 Johann Bauschinger studied at the polytechnical school in Nürnberg and from 1853 mathematics, physics, and astronomy at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität in Munich. There the physicist Georg Simon Ohm was his mentor. In 1856 Bauschinger graduated as teacher for mathematics and physics. During his university education, he volunteered at the Munich observatory where he deepened his education in astronomy, mechanics, and metrology. Bauschinger was married with Katharina Strasser. Among their ten children was Julius, who became a famous astronomer and professor in Strasbourg.
In 1857 Bauschinger became teacher in Fürth and since 1866 was high school teacher in Munich. In 1868 he was appointed full professor of engineering mechanics and graphical statics at the Polytechnical School (later TH Munich). Additionally, in 1871 he became founder and head of the Mechanical Technical Laboratory (later State Material Testing Laboratory), which was the first testing laboratory for materials on the European mainland.
Scientific Achievements and Honors
Bauschinger published his first book on mechanics in 1861(Die Schule der Mechanik), and its second edition followed in 1867 (Bauschinger, 1861). The famous book Elemente der graphischen Statik appeared in 1871, was translated into Italian and Russian, and was reedited in 1879 (Bauschinger, 1871). Bauschinger became famous for precisely conducted and documented experiments designed to extract properties of materials used in civil and mechanical engineering. Most of these experiments and their results were published in the Mitt(h)eilungen aus dem Mechanisch-technischen Laboratorium der Königlichen Technischen Hochschule in München (Bauschinger, 1873–1895). Volume 13 contains his observations on the asymmetry of the stress-strain-curve of iron-based materials upon load reversal. This phenomenon is still a topic of investigation worldwide and has been termed Bauschinger effect. Bauschinger published 21 volumes of his Mitt(h)eilungen; later volumes were published by his successors, August and Ludwig Föppl (Föppl, 1896–1915, 1930–1931). Johann Bauschinger initiated a conference series devoted to the standardization of material testing (Konferenzen zur Vereinbarung einheitlicher Methoden für die Prüfung von Bau- und Konstruktionsmaterialien held in 1884, 1886, 1887, and 1893), which later resulted in the establishment of the Deutscher Verband für die Materialprüfungen der Technik (DVM).
Johann Bauschinger became member of the Nationale Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina in 1888 and of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences in 1892.
- Bauschinger J (1861) Die Schule der Mechanik. R. Oldenbourg, MünchenGoogle Scholar
- Bauschinger J (1873–1895) Mittheilungen aus dem Mechanisch-technischen Laboratorium der Königlichen Technischen Hochschule in München, vols 1–23. Theodor Ackermann, MünchenGoogle Scholar
- Föppl A (1896–1915) Mitteilungen aus dem Mechanisch-technischen Laboratorium der Königlichen Technischen Hochschule in München, vols 24–33. Theodor Ackermann, MünchenGoogle Scholar
- Föppl L (1930–1931) Mitteilungen aus dem Mechanisch-technischen Laboratorium der Technischen Hochschule in München, vols 34–35. Theodor Ackermann, MünchenGoogle Scholar