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Heimvorteil

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Zusammenfassung

Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über die Forschung zum Heimvorteil, der in allen Mannschaftssportarten nachweisbar ist. Die Stärke des Heimvorteils variiert allerdings erheblich und hängt maßgeblich von der betrachteten Sportart, dem betreffenden Land und Liga, dem Zeitpunkt der Betrachtung (im Längsschnitt), (vermutlich) dem Geschlecht der Akteure und von der Leistungsstärke der beteiligten Mannschaften ab.

In diesem Kapitel werden die wichtigsten Gründe für den Heimvorteil und seine Variationen diskutiert. Trotz langjähriger Forschung sind diese Gründe allerdings noch nicht zufriedenstellend aufgeklärt. U. a. kann die weithin verbreitete Auffassung, dass Zuschauer und Schiedsrichter den Heimvorteil verursachen, bislang nicht überzeugend empirisch bestätigt werden und es wird diskutiert, dass vielmehr die sozial-kognitiven Prozesse intensiver untersucht werden sollten.

Dieser Beitrag ist Teil der Sektion Sportpsychologie, herausgegeben vom Teilherausgeber Dieter Hackfort, innerhalb des Handbuchs Sport und Sportwissenschaft, herausgegeben von Arne Güllich und Michael Krüger.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Zuschauer
  • Heimat
  • Choking
  • Soziale Unterstützung
  • Schiedsrichter

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Aus Gründen der besseren Lesbarkeit sind bei Verwendung der zahlreich vorkommenden Begriffe wie „Zuschauer“, „Schiedsrichter“, „Athlet“, „Sportler“, „Akteur“ o.ä. (oder auch Zusammensetzungen von Begriffen) alle Geschlechter gemeint.

  2. 2.

    Es muss auf (Fußball-)Studien hingewiesen werden, die jeweils durchgängig einen Heimvorteil im Kontext von nicht-balancierten Wettkämpfen wie Pokalwettbewerben (Nevill und Holder 1999; Pollard 2006), Weltmeisterschaften (Fußball: Strauß und Carron 2010) und Kontinentalmeisterschaften (Fußball: Strauß und Welberg 2008) bzw. Fußball-Nationalmannschaften und deren Qualifikationswettbewerben (Pollard und Armatas 2017) und Freundschaftsspielen haben (Brown et al. 2002) sowie bspw. bei Einzelleistungen in Mannschaftswettbewerben wie Elfmeterschießen (Kocher et al. 2008).

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Correspondence to Bernd Strauß .

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Strauß, B., MacMahon, C. (2020). Heimvorteil. In: Güllich, A., Krüger, M. (eds) Sport in Kultur und Gesellschaft. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53385-7_53-2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53385-7_53-2

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  • Print ISBN: 978-3-662-53385-7

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Chapter History

  1. Latest

    Heimvorteil
    Published:
    24 September 2020

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53385-7_53-2

  2. Original

    Heimvorteil
    Published:
    31 July 2019

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53385-7_53-1