Skip to main content

Emotionen, Stress und Coping im sportlichen Wettbewerb

  • 930 Accesses

Zusammenfassung

Emotionen sind ein zentraler Bestandteil des sportlichen Wettbewerbs. Auf Grund des wechselseitigen Verhältnisses von Emotionen und sportlicher Leistung wird zum einen beschrieben, wie Emotionen im Wettbewerb entstehen, und zum anderen, wie diese die sportliche Leistung beeinflussen. Darüber hinaus wird auf die Ursachen und Konsequenzen von Stress als ein verwandtes Thema eingegangen. Darauf basierend wird zuletzt Coping als eine Möglichkeit vorgestellt, mit den verschiedenen Stressoren des Sports umzugehen.

Dieser Beitrag ist Teil der Sektion Sportpsychologie, herausgegeben von Teilherausgeber Dieter Hackfort, innerhalb des Handbuchs Sport und Sportwissenschaft, herausgegeben von Arne Güllich und Michael Krüger.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Kognitive Bewertung
  • Wettkampfangst
  • Problemorientiertes Coping
  • Emotionsorientiertes Coping
  • Affekt

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Abb. 1

Literatur

  • Arent, S. M., & Landers, D. (2003). Arousal, anxiety, and performance: A reexamination of the inverted-U Hypothesis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 74, 436–444.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Barrett, L. F. (2012). Emotions are real. Emotion, 12, 413–429.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Craft, L. L., Magyar, T. M., Becker, B. J., & Feltz, D. L. (2003). The relationship between the competitive state anxiety inventory-2 and sport performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 25, 44–65.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Crocker, P. R. E., Tamminen, K. A., & Gaudreau, P. (2015). Conceptual advances in stress and coping in sport. In S. Hanton & S. Mellalieu (Hrsg.), Contemporary advances in sport psychology: A review (S. 28–67). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deci, E. L. (1980). The psychology of self-determination. Lexington: Heath.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eder, A. B., & Brosch, T. (2017). Emotion. In J. Müsseler & M. Rieger (Hrsg.), Allgemeine Psychologie (3. Aufl., S. 185–222). Heidelberg: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ehrlenspiel, F., Brand, R., & Graf, K. (Hrsg.) (2009). Das Wettkampfangst-Inventar – State. In Das Wettkampfangst- Inventar. Manual zur komprehensiven Eingangsdiagnostik von Wettkampfangst, Wettkampfängstlichkeit und Angstbewältigungsmodus im Sport (S. 71–100). Bonn: Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ekkekakis, P. (2013). The measurement of affect, mood, and emotion: A guide for health-behavioral research. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ekkekakis, P., & Backhouse, S. H. (2014). Physical activity and feeling good. In A. Papaioannou & D. Hackfort (Hrsg.), Routledge companion to sport and exercise psychology: Global perspectives and fundamental concepts (S. 687–704). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ekman, P., & Cordaro, D. (2011). What is meant by calling emotion basic. Emotion Review, 3, 364–370.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ekman, P., Sorenson, E. R., & Friesen, W. V. (1969). Pan-cultural elements in facial displays of emotions. Science, 164, 86–88.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eysenck, M. W., Derakshan, N., Santos, R., & Calvo, M. G. (2007). Anxiety and cognitive performance: Attentional control theory. Emotion, 7, 336–353.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Folkman, S. (1991). Coping across the lifespan: Theoretical issues. In E. M. Cumming, A. L. Greene & K. H. Karraker (Hrsg.), Life-span developmental psychology: Perspectives on stress and coping (S. 3–19). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and through-action repertoires. Cognition and Emotion, 19, 313–332.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gould, D., Eklund, R. C., & Jackson, S. A. (1993). Coping strategies used by US Olympic wrestlers. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64, 83–93.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hackfort, D. (Hrsg.). (1991). Funktionen von Emotionen im Sport. Schorndorf: Hofmann.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hackfort, D., & Birkner, H.-A. (2006). Funktionen von Emotionen. In M. Tietjens & B. Strauss (Hrsg.), Handbuch Sportpsychologie (S. 165–177). Schorndorf: Hofmann.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hackfort, D., & Schwenkmezger, P. (1980). Angst und Angstkontrolle im Sport. Köln: bps.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hackfort, D., & Schwenkmezger, P. (1993). Anxiety. In R. N. Singer, M. Murhphy & L. K. Tennant (Hrsg.), Handbook of research in sport psychology (S. 328–364). New York: MacMillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hanin, Y. L. (2007). Emotions in sport: Current issues and perspectives. In G. Tenenbaum & R. C. Eklund (Hrsg.), Handbook of Sport Psychology (3. Aufl., S. 31–58). Hobolen: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hanin, Y. L., & Ekkekakis, P. (2014). Emotions in and exercise settings. In A. G. Papaioannou & D. Hackfort (Hrsg.), Routledge companion to sport and exercise psychology: Global perspectives and fundamental concepts. (S. 83–104). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hanton, S., & Mellalieu, S. D. (2014). Coping with stress and anxiety. In A. Papaioannou & D. Hackfort (Hrsg.), Routledge companion to sport and exercise psychology: Global perspectives and fundamental concepts (S. 430–445). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hanton, S., Fletcher, D., & Coughlan, G. (2005). Stress in elite sport performers: A comparative study of competitive and organizational stressors. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 1129–1141.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hanton, S., Neil, R., & Mellalieu, S. D. (2011). Competitive anxiety and sporting performance. In T. Morris & P. Terry (Hrsg.), The new sport and exercise psychology companion (S. 89–105). Morgantown: Fitness Information Technology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hardy, L. (1990). A catastrophe model of performance in sport. In J. G. Jones & L. Hardy (Hrsg.), Stress and Performance in Sport (S. 81–106). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hill, A. P., Hall, H. K., & Appleton, P. R. (2010). Perfectionism and athlete burnout in junior elite athletes: The mediating role of coping tendencies. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 23, 415–430.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, S. A. (2011). Flow. In The new sport and exercise psychology companion (S. 327–357). Morgantown: Fitness Information Technology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jokela, M., & Hanin, Y. (1999). Does individual zones of optimal functioning model discriminate between successful and less successful athletes? A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport Sciences, 17, 873–887.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jones, G. (1995). More than just a game: Research developments and issues in competitive state anxiety in sport. British Journal of Psychology, 86, 449–478.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jones, M. V. (2012). Emotion regulation and performance. In S. Murphy (Hrsg.), The Oxford handbook of sport and performance psychology (S. 154–172). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim, M. S., & Duda, J. L. (2003). The coping process: Cognitive appraisals of stress, coping strategies, and coping effectiveness. The Sport Psychologist, 17, 406–425.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Latinjak, A. T. (2012). The underlying structure of emotions: A tri-dimensional model of core affect and emotion concepts for sports. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte, 7, 71–87.

    Google Scholar 

  • Latinjak, A. T., Zourbanos, N., López-Ros, V., & Hatzigeorgiadis, A. (2014). Goal-directed and undirected self-talk: Exploring a new perspective for the study of athletes’ self-talk. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15, 548–558.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Latinjak, A. T., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., & Zourbanos, N. (2017). Goal-directed and spontaneous self-talk in anger- and anxiety-eliciting sport-situations. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 29, 150–166.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lazarus, R. S. (2000). How emotions influence performance in competitive sports. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 229–252.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewis, F., Knight, C., & Mellalieu, S. (2017). Emotional experiences in youth tennis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 29, 69–83.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lindquist, K. A., Siegel, E. H., Quigley, K. S., & Barrett, L. F. (2013). The hundred year emotion war: Are emotions natural kinds or psychological constructions? Comment on Lench, Flores and Bench (2011). Psychological Bulletin, 139, 255–263.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Martens, R., Burton, D., Vealey, R. S., Bump, L. A., & Smith, D. E. (1990a). Development and validation of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). In R. Martens, R. S. Vealey & D. Burton (Hrsg.), Competitive anxiety in sport (S. 193–208). Champaign: Human Kinetics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martens, R., Vealey, R. S., & Burton, D. (1990b). Competitive anxiety in sport. Champaign: Human Kinetics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martinent, G., & Ferrand, C. (2009). A naturalistic study of the directional interpretation process of discrete emotions during high-stakes table tennis matches. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31, 318–336.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mauss, I. B., & Robinson, M. D. (2009). Measures of emotion: A review. Cognition and Emotion, 23, 209–237.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McCarthy, P. J., Allen, M. S., & Jones, M. V. (2013). Emotions, cognitive interference, and concentration disruption in youth sport. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31, 505–515.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mellalieu, S. D., Hanton, S., & Fletcher, D. (2006). A competitive anxiety review: Recent directions in sport psychology research. In S. Hanton & S. D. Mellalieu (Hrsg.), Literature reviews in sport psychology (S. 1–45). Hauppauge: Nova Science.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mellalieu, S. D., Neil, R., Hanton, S., & Fletcher, D. (2009). Competition stress in sport performers: stressors experienced in the competition environment. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27, 729–744.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Neely, K. C., McHugh, T.-L. F., Dunn, J. G. H., & Holt, N. L. (2017). Athletes and parents coping with deselection in competitive youth sport: A communal coping perspective. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 30, 1–9.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Neil, R., Bowles, H. C. R., Fleming, S., & Hanton, S. (2016). The experience of competition stress and emotions in cricket. The Sport Psychologist, 30, 76–88.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nicholls, A. R., & Polman, R. C. J. (2007). Coping in sport: A systematic review. Journal of Sport Sciences, 25, 11–31.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ntoumanis, N., & Biddle, S. J. H. (1998). The relationship of coping and its perceived effectiveness to positive and negative affect in sport. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 773–788.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Patmore, A. (1986). Sportsmen under stress. London: Stanley Paul.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pensgaard, A. M., & Duda, J. L. (2003). Sydney: The interplay between emotions, coping, and the performance of Olympic-level athletes. The Sport Psychologist, 17, 253–267.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Poliseo, J. M., & McDonough, M. H. (2012). Coping effectiveness in competitive sport: Linking goodness of fit and coping outcomes. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 1, 106–119.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ruiz, M. C., Haapanen, S., Tolvanen, A., Robazza, C., & Duda, J. L. (2017). Predicting athletes’ functional and dysfunctional emotions: The role of the motivational climate and motivation regulations. Journal of Sports Sciences, 35, 1598–1606.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Russell, J. A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1161–1178.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Russell, J. A. (2009). Emotion, core affect, and psychological construction. Cognition and Emotion, 23, 1259–1283.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Skinner, N., & Brewer, N. (2004). Adaptive approaches to competition: Challenge appraisals and positive emotion. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 26, 283–305.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sofia, R., & Cruz, J. F. A. (2016). Exploring individual differences in the experience of anger in sport competition: The importance of cognitive, emotional, and motivational variables. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 28, 350–366.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Spielberger, C. D. (1966). Theory and research on anxiety. Anxiety and behaviour. New York: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tamminen, K. A., & Bennett, E. V. (2017). No emotion is an island: an overview of theoretical perspectives and narrative research on emotions in sport and physical activity. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 9, 183–199.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Turner, M. J., Slater, M. J., & Barker, J. B. (2014). Not the end of the world: The effects of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) on irrational beliefs in elite soccer academy athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 26, 144–156.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Uphill, M. A., & Jones, M. V. (2007). Antecedents of emotions in elite athletes: A cognitive motivational relational theory perspective. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 78, 79–89.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Uphill, M. A., Groom, R., & Jones, M. V. (2014). The influence of in-game emotions on basketball performance. European Journal of Sport Science, 14, 76–83.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Vast, R. L., Young, R. L., & Thomas, P. R. (2010). Emotions in sport: Perceived effects on attention, concentration, and performance. Australian Psychologist, 45, 132–140.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wagstaff, C. R. D., Neil, R., Mellalieu, S. D., & Hanton, S. (2012). Key movements in directional research in competitive anxiety. Routledge Online Studies on the Olympic and Paralympic Games [Special Edition], 53, 143–166.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Woodman, T., Davis, P. A., Hardy, L., Callow, N., Glasscock, I., & Yuill-Proctor, J. (2009). Emotions and sport performance: An exploration of happiness, hope, and anger. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 31, 169–188.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yerkes, R. M., & Dodson, J. D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18, 459–482.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zajonc, R. B. (1984). On the Primacy of Affect. American Psychologist, 39, 117–123.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Julian Fritsch .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Section Editor information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature

About this entry

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this entry

Fritsch, J., Latinjak, A.T. (2019). Emotionen, Stress und Coping im sportlichen Wettbewerb. In: Güllich, A., Krüger, M. (eds) Sport in Kultur und Gesellschaft. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53385-7_32-1

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53385-7_32-1

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-662-53385-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-662-53385-7

  • eBook Packages: Springer Referenz Naturwissenschaften