Skip to main content

Entscheiden und Problemlösen

Zusammenfassung

Im Sport werden von verschiedenen Akteuren in verschiedenen Situationen Entscheidungen getroffen und Probleme gelöst. In diesem Kapitel wird beschrieben wie Entscheidungs- und Problemlöseprozesse theoretisch erklärt werden, wie empirische Studien diese Phänomene und Effekte im Sport abbilden und zu welchen Ergebnissen sie kommen. Weiterhin wird dargestellt, inwiefern eine kognitionspsychologische Perspektive auf Entscheiden und Problemlösen im Sport gewinnbringend ist und auch ein sich lohnendes Forschungs- und Betätigungsfeld für Sportwissenschaftlerinnen darstellt.

Dieser Beitrag ist Teil der Sektion Sportpsychologie, herausgegeben vom Teilherausgeber Dieter Hackfort, innerhalb des Handbuchs Sport und Sportwissenschaft, herausgegeben von Arne Güllich und Michael Krüger.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Kognition
  • Optionsgenerierung
  • Heuristiken
  • Embodied problem solving
  • Expertise

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Abb. 1
Abb. 2

Literatur

  • Abernethy, B. (1991). Visual search strategies and decision-making in sport. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 22, 189–210.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ball, L. J., Marsh, J. E., Litchfield, D., Cook, R. L., & Booth, N. (2015). When distraction helps: Evidence that concurrent articulation and irrelevant speech can facilitate insight problem solving. Thinking & Reasoning, 21(1), 76–96.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bar-Eli, M., Plessner, H., & Raab, M. (2011). Judgment, decision-making and success in sport. Oxford: Wiley.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Belling, P. K., Suss, J., & Ward, P. (2015a). Advancing theory and application of cognitive research in sport: Using representative tasks to explain and predict skilled anticipation, decision-making, and option-generation behavior. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 45–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.08.001.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Belling, P. K., Suss, J., & Ward, P. (2015b). The effect of time constraint on anticipation, decision making, and option generation in complex and dynamic environments. Cognition, Technology and Work, 17(3), 355–366. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10111-015-0334-2.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bennis, W. M., & Pachur, T. (2006). Fast and frugal heuristics in sports. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7(6), 611–629. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.06.002.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Betsch, T., Funke, J., & Plessner, H. (2011). Allgemeine Psychologie für Bachelor: Denken-Urteilen, Entscheiden, Problemlösen. Lesen, Hören, Lernen im Web. Heidelberg: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bowden, E. M., Jung-Beeman, M., Fleck, J., & Kounios, J. (2005). New approaches to demystifying insight. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 322–328.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Busemeyer, J. R., & Townsend, J. T. (1993). Decision field theory: A dynamic-cognitive approach to decision making in an uncertain environment. Psychological Review, 100(3), 432–459. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.3.432.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chase, W. G., & Simon, H. A. (1973). Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology, 4, 55–81.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Csapo, P., Avugos, S., Raab, M., & Bar-Eli, M. (2015). How should „hot“ players in basketball be defended? The use of fast-and-frugal heuristics by basketball coaches and players in response to streakiness. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(15), 1580–1588. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.999251.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dijksterhuis, A., & Nordgren, L. F. (2006). A theory of unconscious thought. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1, 95–109.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dörner, D., Kreuzig, H. W., Reither, F., & Stäudel, T. (1983). Lohhausen: Vom Umgang mit Unbestimmtheit und Komplexität. Bern: Huber.

    Google Scholar 

  • Duncker, K. (1935). Zur Psychologie des produktiven Denkens. Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Edwards, W. (1954). The theory of decision making. Psychological Bulletin, 51(4), 380–417. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0053870.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ericsson, K. A., & Kintsch, W. (1995). Long-term working memory. Psychological Review, 102, 211–245.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fleck, J. I., & Weisberg, R. W. (2013). Insight versus analysis: Evidence for diverse methods in problem solving. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25, 436–463.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gigerenzer, G., & Gaissmaier, W. (2011). Heuristic decision making. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 451–482. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-120709-145346.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gigerenzer, G., & Goldstein, D. (1996). Reasoning the fast and frugal way: Models of bounded rationality. Psychological Review, 103(4), 650–669.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gigerenzer, G., & Todd, P. (1999). Fast and frugal heuristics: The adaptive toolbox. Simple heuristics that make us smart. http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/pubman/item/escidoc:2102905/component/escidoc:2102904/GG_Fast_1999.pdf.

  • Gilhooly, K. J. (2016). Incubation and intuition in creative problem solving. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1076.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Groot, A. D. de (1965). Thought and choice in chess. The Hague: Mouton.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hagemann, N., Strauss, B., & Büsch, D. (2008). The complex problem-solving competence of team coaches. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9, 301–317.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hepler, T. J., & Feltz, D. L. (2012). Take the first heuristic, self-efficacy, and decision-making in sport. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 18(2), 154–161. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027807.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, J. G. (2006). Cognitive modeling of decision making in sports. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7(6), 631–652. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.03.009.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, J. G., & Raab, M. (2003). Take the first: Option-generation and resulting choices. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 91(2), 215–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-5978(03)00027-X.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Knoblich, G. & Öllinger, M. (2008). Problemlösen und logisches Schließen. In J. Müsseler (Hrsg.), Allgemeine Psychologie, (S. 552–598). Heidelberg/Berlin: Hogrefe.

    Google Scholar 

  • Luchins, A. S. (1942). Mechanization in problem solving: The effect of Einstellung. Psychological Monographs, 54(6), i–95.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mann, D. T. Y., Williams, A. M., Ward, P., & Janelle, C. M. (2007). Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29(4), 457–477.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marasso, D., Laborde, S., Bardaglio, G., & Raab, M. (2014). A developmental perspective on decision making in sports. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2014.932424.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mayer, R. E. (1992). Thinking, problem solving, cognition. New York, NY: Freeman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Musculus, L., Ruggeri, A., Raab, M., & Lobinger, B. (2017). The ecological rationality of children’s option generation and decision making. In Cognitive science proceedings.

    Google Scholar 

  • Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nitsch, J. R., & Hackfort, D. (2016). Theoretical framework of performance psychology: An action theory perspective. In M. Raab, B. Lobinger, S. Hoffman, A. Pizzera & S. Laborde (Hrsg.), Performance psychology (S. 11–29). London: Elsevier Academic Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Oliveira, R. F. de, Lobinger, B. H., & Raab, M. (2014). An adaptive toolbox approach to the route to expertise in sport. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 709. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00709

  • Öllinger, M. (2017). Problemlösen. In J. Müsseler & M. Rieger (Hrsg.), Allgemeine Psychologie (S. 587–619). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Öllinger, M., Jones, G., Faber, A. H., & Knoblich, G. (2013). Cognitive mechanisms of insight: The role of heuristics and representational change in solving the eight-coin problem. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 39, 931–939.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pizzera, A. (2012). Experience as gymnasts. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83, 603–607.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Raab, M. (2002). T-ECHO: Model of decision making to explain behaviour in experiments and simulations under time pressure. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 3(2), 151–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1469-0292(01)00014-0.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Raab, M. (2012). Simple heuristics in sports. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 0(0), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2012.654810.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Raab, M. (2017). Motor heuristics and embodied choices: How to choose and act. Current Opinion in Psychology, 16, 34–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.02.029.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Raab, M., & Johnson, J. G. (2004). Individual differences of action orientation for risktaking in sports. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 75(3), 326–336. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2004.10609164.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Raab, M., & Johnson, J. G. (2007). Expertise-based differences in search and option-generation strategies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 13(3), 158–170. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-898X.13.3.158.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Raab, M., & Reimer, T. (2007). Intuitive und deliberative Entscheidungen als Grundlage sportlicher Expertise. In N. Hagemann, M. Tietjens, & B. Strauß (Hrsg.), Psychologie der sportlichen Höchstleistung: Grundlagen und Anwendungen der Expertiseforschung im Sport (S. 93–117). Göttingen: Hogrefe.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roth, K., & Strang, H. (1994). Action versus state orientation and the control of tactical decisions in sports. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Hrsg.), Volition and personality action versus state orientation (S. 467–474). Gottingen: Hogrefe.

    Google Scholar 

  • Segal, E. (2004). Incubation in insight problem solving. Creativity Research Journal, 16, 141–148.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Starkes, J. L., Edwards, P., Dissanayake, P., & Dunn, T. (1995). A new technology and field test of advance cue usage in volleyball. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 66, 162–167.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tversky, A. (1972). Elimination by aspects: A theory of choice. Psychological Review, 79(4), 281–299. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0032955.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ward, P., & Williams, M. A. (2003). Perceptual and cognitive skill development in soccer: The multidimensional nature of expert performance. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 25, 93–111.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ward, P., Ericsson, K. A., Williams, M. A., & Williams, A. M. (2013). Complex perceptual-cognitive expertise in a simulated task environment. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 7(3), 231–254. https://doi.org/10.1177/1555343412461254.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lisa Musculus .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Section Editor information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature

About this entry

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this entry

Musculus, L., Werner, K., Lobinger, B., Raab, M. (2019). Entscheiden und Problemlösen. In: Güllich, A., Krüger, M. (eds) Sport in Kultur und Gesellschaft. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53385-7_30-1

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53385-7_30-1

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-662-53385-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-662-53385-7

  • eBook Packages: Springer Referenz Naturwissenschaften