Furchtappelle in der Gesundheitskommunikation

Living reference work entry
Part of the Springer Reference Sozialwissenschaften book series (SRS)

Zusammenfassung

Furchterregende Botschaften werden insbesondere im Bereich der Gesundheitskommunikation eingesetzt, um gesundheitsrelevante Verhaltensweisen der Adressaten in einer intendierten Weise zu beeinflussen. In diesem Kapitel werden die theoretischen Annahmen zur Wirkung von Furchtappellen auf zentrale Modelle des Gesundheitsverhaltens angewandt. Gestützt auf zentrale empirische Befunde zur Wirkung von Furchtappellen im Gesundheitsbereich werden Empfehlungen für die Praxis abgeleitet. Daneben wird auch auf die kontroverse Bewertung des Einsatzes von Furchtappellen in der Gesundheitskommunikation eingegangen.

Schlüsselwörter

Furchtappell Modelle des Gesundheitsverhaltens Bedrohung Wirksamkeit Extended Parallel Process Model 

Literatur

  1. Albarracín, D., Gillette, J. C., Earl, A. N., Glasman, L. R., Durantini, M. R., & Ho, M.-H. (2005). A test of major assumptions about behavior change: A comprehensive look at the effects of passive and active HIV-prevention interventions since the beginning of the epidemic. Psychological Bulletin, 131(6), 856–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boster, F. J., & Mongeau, P. (1984). Fear-arousing persuasive messages. In R. N. Bostrom & B. H. Westley (Hrsg.), Communication yearbook (Bd. 8, S. 330–375). Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  3. Carey, R. N., McDermott, D. T., & Sarma, K. M. (2013). The impact of threat appeals on fear arousal and driver behavior: A meta-analysis of experimental research 1990–2011. PLoS ONE, 8(5), e62821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carpenter, C. J. (2010). A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of health belief model variables in predicting behavior. Health Communication, 25(8), 661–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cismaru, M. (2014). Using the extended parallel process model to understand texting while driving and guide communication campaigns against it. Social Marketing Quarterly, 20(1), 66–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Hoog, N., Stroebe, W., & de Wit, J. B. (2007). The impact of vulnerability to and severity of a health risk on processing and acceptance of fear-arousing communications: A meta-analysis. Review of General Psychology, 11(3), 258–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Floyd, D. L., Prentice-Dunn, S., & Rogers, R. W. (2000). A meta-analysis of research on protection motivation theory. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30(2), 407–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fromm, B., Baumann, E., & Lampert, C. (2011). Gesundheitskommunikation und Medien. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.Google Scholar
  9. Hale, J. L., & Dillard, J. P. (1995). Fear appeals in health promotion campaigns: Too much, too little, or just right? In E. Maibach & R. L. Parrott (Hrsg.), Designing health messages: Approaches from communication theory and public health practice (S. 65–80). Thousand Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Harrison, J. A., Mullen, P. D., & Green, L. W. (1992). A meta-analysis of studies of the health belief model with adults. Health Education Research, 7(1), 107–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hastall, M. R. (2015). Wirkung von Furchtappellen in der Werbung. In G. Siegert, W. Wirth, J. A. Lischka & P. Weber (Hrsg.), Handbuch Werbeforschung. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.Google Scholar
  12. Hastings, G., Stead, M., & Webb, J. (2004). Fear appeals in social marketing: Strategic and ethical reasons for concern. Psychology and Marketing, 21(11), 961–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hovland, C. I., Janis, I. L., & Kelley, H. H. (1953). Communication and persuasion; psychological studies of opinion change. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hunt, D. M., Geiger-Oneto, S., & Shehryar, O. (2009). A meta-analytic review of fear appeals: A terror management perspective. Advances in Consumer Research, 36, 1002–1003.Google Scholar
  15. Janis, I. L., & Feshbach, S. (1953). Effects of fear-arousing communications. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 48(1), 78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Janz, N. K., & Becker, M. H. (1984). The health belief model: A decade later. Health Education & Behavior, 11(1), 1–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. LaVoie, N. R., & Quick, B. L. (2013). What is the truth? An application of the extended parallel process model to televised truth ads. Health Communication, 28(1), 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Leventhal, H. (1970). Findings and theory in the study of fear communications. In L. Berkowitz (Hrsg.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Bd. 5, S. 119–186). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  19. Miller, G. R. (1963). Studies on the use of fear appeals: A summary and analysis. Central States Speech Journal, 14, 117–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Milne, S., Sheeran, P., & Orbell, S. (2000). Prediction and intervention in health-related behavior: A meta-analytic review of protection motivation theory. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30(1), 106–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Neurauter, M. (2005). Who is afraid of fear appeals?: Persuasion and emotion in print advertising (Bd. 123). Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen der Universität Innsbruck.Google Scholar
  22. Noar, S. M., Hall, M. G., Francis, D. B., Ribisl, K. M., Pepper, J. K., & Brewer, N. T. (2015). Pictorial cigarette pack warnings: a meta-analysis of experimental studies. Tobacco Control, 25, 341–354. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051978.Google Scholar
  23. Öhman, A. (2010). Fear and anxiety. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones & L. F. Barrett (Hrsg.), Handbook of emotions (3. Aufl., S. 709–729). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  24. Peters, G.-J. Y., Ruiter, R. A., & Kok, G. (2013). Threatening communication: A critical re-analysis and a revised meta-analytic test of fear appeal theory. Health Psychology Review, 7(Suppl 1), S8–S31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pfister, T. (2012). Mit Fallbeispielen und Furchtappellen zu erfolgreichen Gesundheitsbotschaften? Dissertation, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.Google Scholar
  26. Prochaska, J. O., & Velicer, W. F. (1997). The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12, 38–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Reevy, G. (2010). Encyclopedia of emotion (Bd. 1). Santa Barbara: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  28. Rogers, R. W. (1975). A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change. Journal of Psychology, 91(1), 93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rogers, R. W. (1983). Cognitive and physiological processes in fear appeals and attitude change: A revised theory of protection motivation. In J. T. Cacioppo & R. E. Petty (Hrsg.), Social psychophysiology (S. 153–177). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  30. Rosenstock, I. M. (1960). What research in motivation suggests for public health. American Journal of Public Health and the Nation’s Health, 50(3 Pt 1), 295–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ruiter, R. A. C., Kessels, L. T. E., Peters, G.-J. Y., & Kok, G. (2014). Sixty years of fear appeal research: Current state of the evidence. International Journal of Psychology, 49(2), 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Scherer, K. R. (2005). What are emotions? And how can they be measured? Social Science Information, 44(4), 695–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. So, J. (2013). A further extension of the extended parallel process model (E-EPPM): Implications of cognitive appraisal theory of emotion and dispositional coping style. Health Communication, 28(1), 72–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sutton, S. (1992). Shock tactics and the myth of the inverted U. British Journal of Addiction, 87(4), 517–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tannenbaum, M. B., Hepler, J., Zimmerman, R. S., Saul, L., Jacobs, S., Wilson, K., et al. (2015). Appealing to fear: A meta-analysis of fear appeal effectiveness and theories. Psychological Bulletin, 141(6), 1178–1204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Weinstein, N. D., & Sandman, P. M. (2002). The precaution adoption process model and its application. In R. J. DiClemente, R. A. Crosby & M. C. Kegler (Hrsg.), Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research: Strategies for improving public health (S. 16–39). San Francisco: Wiley.Google Scholar
  37. Witte, K. (1992). Putting the fear back into fear appeals: The extended parallel process model. Communication Monographs, 59(4), 329–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Witte, K. (1994). Fear control and danger control: A test of the extended parallel process model (EPPM). Communication Monographs, 61(2), 113–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Witte, K., & Allen, M. (2000). A meta-analysis of fear appeals: Implications for effective public health campaigns. Health Education & Behavior, 27(5), 591–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Departement für Kommunikationswissenschaft und MedienforschungUniversität FreiburgFreiburgSchweiz

Personalised recommendations