Advertisement

Youth Transitions, Welfare Policy and Contemporary Europe

  • Steve RobertsEmail author
  • Lorenza Antonucci
Living reference work entry
Part of the Springer NachschlageWissen book series (SRS)

Abstract

This chapter emphasises the role welfare policy (or social policy) has upon young people’s lives and their transition to adulthood. We discusses the role that social policies play in the protracted transitions to adulthood of young people, stressing how structural factors determine a non-homogenous experience of transitions among young people. The chapter then illustrates how structural differences can be explained by variations across welfare regimes, and proposes welfare mixes as an alternative framework to understand how young people manage social risks in contemporary societies. Finally, the chapter discusses the implications of current labour market policies on young people, arguing that welfare state interventions are reinforcing the individualisation trend. Providing examples of how policy influences transitions, we argue that it is essential for youth sociologists to explore welfare sources as structures around young people. Moving beyond welfare regime-type analysis towards a focus on welfare mixes will, we contend, enable the development of a fuller appreciation of the processes that generate inequalities in youth transitions.

Keywords

Young people Europe Welfare mix Transitions Policy Inequality 

References

  1. Angelin, A, et al. (2014). Have Nordic welfare regimes adapted to changes in transitions to adulthood? Unemployment insurance and social assistance among young people in the Nordic welfare states, Chapter 9. In Antonucci, L., Hamilton, M., & Roberts, S. (Hrsg.), Young people and social policy in Europe: dealing with risk, inequality and precarity in times of crisis. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  2. Antonucci, L., Hamilton, M., & Roberts, S. (Eds.). (2014). Young people and social policy in Europe: Dealing with risk, inequality and precarity in times of crisis. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  3. Arnett, J. (2006). Emerging adulthood, the winding road from the late teens through the twenties. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atkinson, W. (2007). Beck, individualization and the death of class: a critique1. The British journal of sociology, 58(3), 349–366.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity. New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
  6. Beck, U. (2000). Living your own life in a runaway world: Individualisation, globalisation and politics. In W. Hutton & A. Giddens (Hrsg.), Global capitalism (S. 164–74). New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  7. Berrington, A., & Stone, J. (2014). Young adults’ transitions to residential independence in Britain: The role of social and housing policy, Chapter 11. In L. Antonucci, M. Hamilton, & S. Roberts (Eds.), Young people and social policy in Europe: Dealing with risk, inequality and precarity in times of crisis. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  8. Bovenberg, L., Van Soest, A., & Zaidi, A. (Hrsg.). (2010). Ageing, health and pensions in Europe: An economic and social policy perspective. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  9. Bradshaw, J. (2012). The case for family benefits. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(3), 590–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castles, F., & Obinger, H. (2008). Worlds, families, regimes: Country clusters in European and OECD area public policy. West European Politics, 31(1-2), 321–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chevalier, T., & Palier, B. (2014). The dualisation of social policies towards young people in France: Between familism and activation, Chapter 10. In L. Antonucci, et al. (Hrsg.), Young people and social policy in Europe: Dealing with risk, inequality and precarity in times of crisis. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  12. Coles, B. (1995). Youth and social policy: Youth citizenship and young careers. London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  13. Emmenegger, P., Hausermann, S., Palier, B. & Seeleib-Kaiser, M. (2012). The age of dualization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  15. Eurostat. (2015). People at risk of poverty or social exclusion (online). http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/People_at_risk_of_poverty_or_social_exclusion. Zugegriffen am 15.08.2015.
  16. Fahmy, E. (2014). The complex nature of youth poverty and deprivation in Europe, Chapter 3. In L. Antonucci, et al. (Eds.), Young people and social policy in Europe: Dealing with risk, inequality and precarity in times of crisis. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  17. Ferrera, M. (1996). The “Southern model” of welfare in social Europe. Journal of European Social Policy, 1(6), 17–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ford, J., Rugg, J., & Burrows, R. (2002). Conceptualising the contemporary role of housing in the transition to adult life in England. Urban studies, 39(13), 2455–2467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Furlong, A., & Cartmel, F. (2007). Young people and social change: New perspectives. Maidenhead: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Goodwin, J., & O’Connor, H. (2005). Exploring complex transitions: Looking back at the ‘Golden Age’ of from school to work. Sociology, 39(2), 201–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hacker, J. S. (2004). Privatizing risk without privatizing the welfare state: The hidden politics of social policy retrenchment in the United States. American Political Science Review, 98(2), 243–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Heath, S., & Calvert, E. (2013). Gifts, loans and intergenerational support for young adults. Sociology, 47(6), 1120–1135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Heinz, W. (2009). Youth transitions in an age of uncertainty. In A. Furlong (Hrsg.), Handbook of youth and young adulthood: New perspectives and agendas. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Heinz, W. (2014) Life-course policy and the transition from school to work in Germany, Chapter 12. In Antonucci, L., Hamilton, M., & Roberts, S. (Eds.), Young people and social policy in Europe: Dealing with risk, inequality and precarity in times of crisis. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  25. Kjorholt, A., & Qvortrup, J. (2012). The modern child and the flexible labour market: Early childhood education and care. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  26. MacDonald, R. (2011). Youth transitions, unemployment and underemployment: Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose?’. Journal of Sociology, 47(4), 427–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mendola, D., Busetta, A., & Aassve, A. (2008). Poverty permanence among European youth. ISER Working paper 2008-04. Colchester: ISER.Google Scholar
  28. Murgia, A., & Poggio, B. (2014). At risk of deskilling and trapped by passion: A picture of precarious highly-educated young workers in Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom, Chapter 4. In Antonucci et al. (Hrsg.).Google Scholar
  29. Murie, A. (2012). The next blueprint for housing policy in England. Housing Studies, 27(7), 1031–1047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. O’Connor, J. (2004). Gender, citizenship and welfare state regimes. In P. Kennett (Hrsg.), A handbook of comparative social policy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  31. Offe, C. (1984). Contradictions of the welfare state. Massachusetts: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  32. ONS. (2015). Zero-hours contract in main job now reported by 744,000 people (Press release). Available at: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/mro/news-release/zero-hours-contract-in-main-job-now-reported-by-744-000-people/zhc0915.html. Zugegriffen am 17.09.2015.
  33. Palier, B., & Thelen, K. (2010). Institutionalizing dualism: Complementarities and change in France and Germany. Politics & Society, 38, 119–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Patterson, L., Forbes, K., & Peace, R. (2009). Happy, stable and contented: Accomplished ageing in the imagined futures of young New Zealanders. Ageing and Society, 29(3), 431–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Powell, M., & Barrientos, A. (2004). Welfare regimes and the welfare mix. European Journal of Political Research, 43(1), 83–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Reiter, H., & Craig, G. (2005). Youth in the labour market: Citizenship or exclusion?. In H. Bradley & J. V. Hoof (Hrsg.), Young people in Europe: Labour markets and citizenship. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  37. Roberts, S. (2010). Misrepresenting ‘choice biographies’?: A reply to Woodman. Journal of youth studies, 13(1), 137–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Roberts, S. (2013). Youth studies, housing transitions and the ‘missing middle’: Time for a rethink? Sociological Research Online, 18(3), 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Saunders, P. (2009). Income support for families and the living standards of children. In S. Kamerman, S. Phipps, and A. Ben-Arieh (Hrsg.), From child welfare to child well-being: Children’s well-being: Indicators and research (Vol. 1, pp. 275–292). Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  40. Standing, G. (2011). The Precariat: The new dangerous class. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  41. Taylor-Gooby, P. (2004). New risks, new welfare: The transformation of the European welfare state. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vogel, J. (2002). European welfare regimes and the transition to adulthood: A comparative and longitudinal perspective’. Social Indicators Research, 59(3), 275–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Walker, A., & Naegele, G. (2009). Social policy in ageing societies: Britain and Germany compared. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  44. Walther, A. (2006). Regimes of youth transitions: Choice, flexibility and security in young people’s experiences across different European contexts. Young, 14(2), 119–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Woodman, D. (2009). The mysterious case of the pervasive choice biography: Ulrich Beck, structure/agency, and the middling state of theory in the sociology of youth. Journal of Youth Studies, 12(3), 243–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Woodman, D., & Wyn, J. (2015). Youth and generation: Rethinking change and inequality in the lives of young people. London: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social SciencesMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  2. 2.Teesside UniversityClevelandUK

Personalised recommendations