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Maschinelle Beatmung und Entwöhnung von der Beatmung

Living reference work entry
Part of the Springer Reference Medizin book series (SRM)

Zusammenfassung

Zu den Kernthemen der Intensivmedizin gehören die maschinelle Beatmung und das Weaning. Die maschinelle Beatmung mit positivem Atemwegsdruck dient der Übernahme oder Unterstützung der Ventilation und der Aufrechterhaltung eines ausreichenden pulmonalen Gasaustauschs bei der akuten respiratorischen Insuffizienz.

Bei physiologischer Atmung wird von der Atemmuskulatur ein negativer Druckgradient aufgebaut, dem entlang inspiratorisch Gas in die Lungen fließt. Bei der Beatmung resultiert demgegenüber der inspiratorische Druckgradient aus einem positiven Atemwegsdruck.

Die Umkehrung der intrathorakalen Druckverhältnisse hat zahlreiche pathophysiologische Konsequenzen. Dementsprechend ist mit der maschinellen Beatmung ein Überwachungsaufwand verbunden, der lediglich auf einer Intensivstation gewährleistet werden kann.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Klinik für Operative Intensivmedizin und Intermediate CareUniversitätsklinikum AachenAachenDeutschland
  2. 2.Klinik für Intensivmedizin und NotfallmedizinKlinikum Bremen-MitteBremenDeutschland

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