Encyclopedia of Membranes

Living Edition
| Editors: Enrico Drioli, Lidietta Giorno

Affinity Separation and Crystallization of Fc Fragments

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-40872-4_690-1

Immunoglobulins are used by the immune system present in serum and tissue fluids to identify and neutralize foreign targets. Immunoglobulins are “Y”-shaped molecules comprised of two identical light chains (L) and two identical heavy chains (H) linked via disulfide covalent forces and via non-covalent interactions. Each chain has constant (CL and CH) and variable (VL and VH) domains (Holt et al. 2003). These form two antigen-binding fragments (Fab) that specifically recognize and bind to antigen molecule and a constant fragment (Fc) which is responsible for the effector function and biodistribution of the antibody (Beale 1987). Proteolytic digestion provides important information to determine an antibody molecule’s structure and function. Antibody molecules can be cleaved into fragments and each of these fragments has a distinct activity. A number of enzymes like papain, pepsin, ficin, bromelain, and elastase can be used for this purpose, papain being the most frequently used (Luo et...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Aslıyüce S, Uzun L, Say R, Denizli A (2013) Immunoglobulin G recognition with Fab fragments imprinted monolithic cryogels: evaluation of the effects of metal-ion assisted-coordination of template molecule. React Funct Polym 73:813–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beale D (1987) Molecular fragmentations. Some applications in immunology. Dev Comp Immunol 11:287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bereli N, Ertürk G, Tumer MA, Say R, Denizli A (2013) Oriented immobilized anti-hIgG via Fc fragment-imprinted PHEMA cryogel for IgG purification. Biomed Chromatogr 27:599–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cortese R (1995) Identification of biologically active peptides using random libraries displayed on phage. Curr Opin Biotechnol 6:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ertürk G, Bereli N, Uzun L, Tumer MA (2011) Affinity separation and characterization of IgG subfragments by fast protein liquid chromatography with HiTrap_r Protein A column. Hacet J Biol Chem 39:133–138Google Scholar
  6. Haupt K, Mosbach K (1998) Plastic antibodies: developments and applications. Tibtech November 16, 468–475.Google Scholar
  7. Holt LJ, Herring C, Jespers LS, Woolven BP, Tomlinson IA (2003) Domain antibodies: proteins for therapy. Trends Biotechnol 21:484–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Luo Q, Mao X, Kong L, Huang X, Zou H (2002) High-performance affinity chromatography for characterization of human immunoglobulin G digestion with papain. J Chromatogr B 776:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry DivisionHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey