Acetic Acid Dehydration by Pervaporation on Charged Membranes
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Acetic acid is produced both synthetically and biologically. The synthetic production typically uses the Monsanto process, which is also known as methanol carbonylation for acetic acid synthesis. About 75 % of acetic acid in the chemical industry is produced by this process, in which carbon monoxide reacts with methanol under influence of a rhodium complex catalyst at 180 °C and pressure of 30–40 atm (Shen et al. 2011). The main challenges in acetic acid and water separation are (1) cost minimization and (2) optimizing separation efficiency. In acetic acid aqueous solutions, there is a dynamic equilibrium between neutral molecules and the acetate and hydronium ions. It was observed that acetic acid dissociation is not only driven by the breaking of H-bonds connecting the ions but also triggered by a solvent reorganization around the proton-accepting water (Park et al. 2006), as illustrated in Scheme 1. Water molecule forms four hydrogen bonds, whereas a hydronium ion only forms three....