Adhesion to Membrane Surfaces
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Adhesion to membrane surfaces generally describes the sticking or holding fast of some substances such as paints, cells, platelets, bacteria, proteins, etc. on membrane surfaces when they are in contact. Usually, the intermolecular interaction is responsible for the adhesion of substances on membrane surfaces (Huang et al. 1999). The adhesion can be divided into several categories, including mechanical adhesion, chemical adhesion, dispersive adhesion, electrostatic adhesion, and diffusive adhesion according to the forces that cause adhesion. The adhesion is a stronger interaction between unlike substances than adsorption (Jacek et al. 1999). In the filtration operation using a membrane, the adsorption and adhesion of foulants such as colloids, particles, proteins, bacteria, and microorganisms on membrane surfaces result often in membrane fouling that induces the severe flux loss and the increase of transmembrane pressure. Membrane fouling can be divided into reversible fouling and...
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