Living Reference Work Entry

Encyclopedia of Mineral and Energy Policy

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Finland: Mineral Policy

  • Jussi PokkiAffiliated withOre Geology and Mineral Economics, Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) Email author 

General Information on Finland

Finland, located in Northern Europe, is one of the world’s northernmost countries (Fig. 1). Finland remained largely an agrarian country until the 1950s. Thereafter, it rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive Nordic-style welfare state, resulting in widespread prosperity. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, and human development. The population of Finland in 2014 was 5.471 million. The average population density (18 inhabitants per km2) is the third lowest of any European country. The World Economic Forum ranks Finland’s higher education and training first in the world (WEF 2013). Around 33 % of residents have a tertiary degree.
Fig. 1

Active mines in Finland in 2014

In 2014, Finland’s real gross domestic product (GDP) was €186.5 billion, very close to that of 2006 (all values calculated with 2010 as the reference year ...

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