Advertisement

Agricultural Extension and Adaptation Under the “New Normal” of Climate Change

  • Brent M. SimpsonEmail author
  • Gaye Burpee
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Adapting to climate change is the most serious challenge facing our species. The scale is global, trajectory of onset uncertain and impacts potentially catastrophic (IPCC 2013). As further evidence emerges and as the scramble to adapt to the ‘new normal’ intensifies, persistent problems, past failures and new challenges have the potential to converge in a perfect storm. In response, extension and advisory service (EAS) providers have a key role to play as a critical link between farming populations and sources of new information and tools, so that practices can be appropriately adapted. This chapter outlines the challenge of adapting to climate change, identifies past and present points of EAS engagement, and proposes future responses, with a focus on the constraints and conditions of smallholder farmers in the tropics, and the natural resource base upon which agriculture depends.

Keywords

Agriculture extension and advisory services climate change adaptation human capacity development information communication technologies policy coordination scaling interventions systems research technology switching points technology transfer/dissemination 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This chapter is based on a longer work by the authors (Simpson and Burpee 2014) produced through support of the USAID funded Modernizing Extension and Advisory Services project.

References

  1. Altieri M (1987) Agroecology: the scientific basis of alternative agriculture. Westview Press, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrett CB, McPeak JG (2006) Poverty traps and safety nets. In: de Janvy A, Kandur R (eds) Poverty, inequality and development essays in honor of Erik Thorbecke. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrios S, Bertinelli L, Strobl E (2003) Dry times in Africa, vol 03/07, CREDIT research paper. Centre for Research in Economic Development and International Trade, University of Nottingham, NottinghamGoogle Scholar
  4. Battisti DS, Naylor RL (2009) Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat. Science 233(5911):240–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Board for International Food and Agriculture Development (BIFAD) (2003) Renewing USAID investment in global long-term training and capacity building in agriculture and rural development. BIFAD, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Bodin O, Crona B, Ernstson H (2006) Social networks in natural resource management: what is there to learn from a structural perspective? Ecol Soc 11(2):r2. Retrieved from www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss2/resp2 Google Scholar
  7. Brunckhorst DJ (2010) Using context in novel community-based natural resource management: landscapes of property, policy and place. Environ Conserv 37(01):16–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bryan E, Deressa TT, Gbetibouo GA, Ringler C (2009) Adaptation to climate change in Ethiopia and South Africa: options and constraints. Environ Sci Policy 12(4):413–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cairns J, Crossa J, Zaidi PH, Grudloyma P, Sanchez C, Araus JL, Atlin GN et al (2013) Identification of drought, heat and combined drought and heat tolerant donors in maize. Crop Sci 52(4):1335–1346. Retrieved from https://www.crops.org/publications/cs/pdfs/53/4/1335 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chinsinga B, Mangani R, Mvula P (2011) The political economy of adaptation through crop diversification in Malawi. IDS Bull 42(3):110–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cooper PJM, Cappiello S, Vermeulen SJ, Campbell BM, Zougmoré R, Kinyangi J (2013) Large-scale implementation of adaptation and mitigation actions in agriculture, vol 50, CCAFS working paper. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), CGIAR, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  12. Easterling W, Apps M (2005) Assessing the consequences of climate change for food and forest resources: a view from the IPCC. Clim Chang 70(1–2):165–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ebi KL, Padgham J, Doumbia M, Kergna A, Smith J, Butt T, McCarl B (2011) Smallholder adaptation to climate change in Mali. Clim Chang 108:423–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eicher CK (2004) Rebuilding Africa’s scientific capacity in food and agriculture. Department of Agricultural Economics Staff Paper 2004–12. Michigan State University, East LansingGoogle Scholar
  15. Eitzinger A, Sonder K, Schmidt A (2012) Tortillas on the roaster summary report: central America maize-bean systems and the changing climate. Catholic Relief Services, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  16. Ericksen PJ, Ingram JSI, Liverman DM (2009) Food security and global environmental change: emerging challenges. Environ Sci Policy 12(4):373–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ferse SCA, Manez Costa M, Manez KS, Adhuri DS, Glaser M (2010) Allies, not aliens: Increasing the role of local communities in marine protected area implementation. Environ Conserv 37(1):23–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2009) Global agriculture towards 2050. How to feed the world 2050. High-level expert forum. FAO, Rome, 12–13 Oct 2009Google Scholar
  19. Francis C (1986) Multiple cropping systems. Macmillan Publishing Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Gbetibouo GA (2009) Understanding farmers’ perceptions and adaptations to climate change and variability: the case of the Limpopo Basin, South Africa. IFPRI Discussion Paper 00849. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  21. Gliessman S (1990) Agroecology: researching the ecological basis for sustainable agriculture. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gourdji SM, Sibley AM, Lobell DB (2013) Global crop exposure to critical high temperatures in the reproductive period: historical trends and future projections. Environ Res Lett 8(2):024041. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/2/024041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Government of Malawi (2010) The agriculture sector wide approach (ASWAp) – Malawi’s prioritized and harmonized Agriculture Development Agenda. Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, Republic of Malawi, LilongweGoogle Scholar
  24. Hansen J, Sato M, Kharecha P, Beerling D, Berner R, Masson-Delmotte V, Zachos JC et al (2008) Target atmosphere CO2: where should humanity aim? Open Atmos Sci J 2:217–231. Retrieved from http://benthamscience.com/open/toascj/articles/V002/217TOASCJ.pdf CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heltberg R, Siegel PB, Jorgensen SL (2009) Addressing human vulnerability to climate change: toward a “no-regrets” approach. Glob Environ Change 19:89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hunt W, Vanclay F, Birch C, Coutts J, Flittner N, Williams B (2011) Agricultural extension: building capacity and resilience in rural industries and communities. Rural Soc 20:112–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007a) In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Assessing Key Vulnerabilities and the Risk from Climate Change. Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York (IPCC/WGII/AR4)Google Scholar
  28. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007b) In: Metz B, Davidson OR, Bosch PR, Dave R, Meyer LA (eds) Agriculture. Mitigation of climate change. Contribution of Working Group III to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York (IPCC/WGIII/AR4)Google Scholar
  29. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2012) Summary for policymakers. In: Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Plattner G-K, Allen SK, Tignor M, Midgley PM (eds) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. A special report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  30. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2013) Summary for policymakers. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2014) Summary for policymakers. Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Working Group II contribution to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) (2013) Smallholders, food security, and the environment. IFAD, RomeGoogle Scholar
  33. Johnson JE, Creighton JH, Norland ER (2006) Building a foundation for success in natural resources extension education: an international perspective. Assoc Int Agric Ext Educ J 13(3):33–45Google Scholar
  34. Kosaka Y, Xie SP (2013) Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial pacific surface cooling. Nature 501:403–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lobell DB, Asner GP (2003) Climate and management contributions to reecnt trends in US agricultural yields. Science 299:1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marenya PP, Barrett CB (2007) Household-level determinants of adoption of improved natural resource management practices among smallholder farmers in western Kenya. Food Policy 32(4):739–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McGranahan G, Balk D, Anderson B (2007) The rising tide: assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones. Environ Urban 19(1):17–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Naam R (2013) The infinite resource: the power of ideas on a finite planet. University Press of New England, LebanonGoogle Scholar
  39. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (2013) [untitled dataset] Retrieved from ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccg/co2/trends/co2_gr_mlo.txt
  40. National Research Council (NRC) (2002) Down to earth: geographic information for sustainable development. National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  41. Peng S, Huang J, Sheehy JE, Laza RC, Visperas RM, Zhong X, Cassman KG et al (2004) Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(27):9971–9975. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC454199/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ramírez-Villegas J, Lau C, Köhler A-K, Signer J, Jarvis A, Arnell N, Osborne T, Hooke J (2011) Climate analogues: finding tomorrow’s agriculture today. Working paper no. 12. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security, Cali. Retrieved from www.ccafs.cgiar.org
  43. Septiningsih EM, Pamplona AM, Sanchez DL, Neeraja CN, Vergara GV, Heuer S, Ismail AM, Mackill DJ (2009) Development of submergence-tolerant rice cultivars: the Sub1 locus and beyond. Ann Bot 103:151–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shepherd A, Mitchell T, Lewis K, Lenhardt A, Jones L, Scott L, Muir-Wood R (2013) The geography of poverty, disasters and climate extremes in 2030. Overseas Development Institute, Met Office Hadley Centre, and Risk Management Solutions, London. Retrieved from http://www.odi.org.uk/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/8633.pdf Google Scholar
  45. Shiferaw BA, Okello J, Reddy RV (2009) Adoption and adaptation of natural resource management innovations in smallholder agriculture: reflections on key lessons and best practices. Environ Dev Sustain 11(3):601–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Simpson BM, Burpee G (2014) Adaptation under the new normal of climate change: the future of agricultural extension and advisory services. Modernizing Extension and Advisory Services discussion paper no. 3. USAID, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  47. Simpson BM, Dembélé E (2011) Modernizing extension and advisory services – rapid scoping mission Mali. Modernizing Extension and Advisory Services Project. USAID, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  48. Simpson BM, Singh KM (2013) Assessment of agricultural extension and advisory services. Modernizing Extension and Advisory Services Project. USAID, Washington, DC, Bihar State, 24 Sept–5 Oct 2012Google Scholar
  49. Simpson BM, Heinrich G, Malindi G (2012) Strengthening pluralistic agricultural extension in Malawi – rapid scoping. Modernizing Extension and Advisory Services Project. USAID, Washington, DC, 9–27 Jan 2012Google Scholar
  50. Stickler M (2012) Focus on land in Africa brief: Niger. World Resources Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  51. Swanson BE (2008) Global review of good agricultural extension and advisory service practices. Food and Agriculture Organization, RomeGoogle Scholar
  52. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), Population Division (2013) World population prospects: the 2012 revision. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. United States Agency for International Development (USAID) (2013) Feed the future fact sheet. Retrieved from http://feedthefuture.gov/sites/default/files/resource/files/ftf_overview_factsheet_oct2012.pdf
  54. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2006) Global anthropogenic non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions: 1990–2020. Office of Atmospheric Programs, Climate Change Division. EPA 430-R-06-005. GPO, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  55. Vandermeer JH (1989) The ecology of intercropping. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. World Bank (2008) World development report 2008: agriculture for development. World Bank, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. World Bank (2010) World development report 2010: development and climate change. World Bank, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. World Neighbors (2000) Reasons for resiliency: toward a sustainable recovery after Hurricane Mitch. World Neighbors, Oklahoma CityGoogle Scholar
  59. Zomer RJ, Trabucco A, Coe R, Place F (2009) Trees on farm: analysis of global extent and geographical pattern of agroforestry. ICRAF working paper no. 89. World Agroforestry Center, NairobiGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource EconomicsMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Catholic Relief ServicesBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations