Reference Work Entry

PanVascular Medicine

pp 1053-1065


An Introduction to Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine

  • Alessio SquassinaAffiliated withDepartment of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari
  • , Mirko ManchiaAffiliated withDepartment of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine, University of CagliariDepartment of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University
  • , Christina MitropoulouAffiliated withDepartment of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam
  • , George P. PatrinosAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Patras Email author 


Pharmacogenomics is gradually assuming an integral part in modern medical practice. The exploitation of genomic data to better predict response to medications and avoid adverse drug reactions is becoming a reality in some medical specialties (i.e., personalized medicine). The creation of an informational structured framework of genetic, phenotypic, and environmental factors might provide the health-care system with useful tools that can optimize the effectiveness of specific treatments. In this chapter, we review the most relevant applications of pharmacogenomics, together with an overview of the opportunities and bottlenecks of the implementation of genetic information in personalized medicine and of its full adoption in clinical settings.