Skip to main content

Functional Anatomy of the Ankle

Sports Injuries
  • 646 Accesses

Abstract

The ankle joint is important in human balance and gait, being responsible for transferring the body weight to the foot and performing motions which are essential to gait. Owing to its rigidity, it maintains body balance, and owing to its flexibility, it provides a comfortable, smooth, and nearly effortless human gait. The ankle joint is a synovial hinge joint that is made up of the articulation of three bones, comprising three articulations: the talocrural joint, the subtalar joint, and the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. Therefore, it is much more than a simple hinge joint because of its unique design. In this chapter the functional and anatomical characteristics of the ankle joint will be discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Anderson KJ, LeCocq JF (1954) Operative treatment of the injury to the fibular collateral ligament of the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg Am 36:825–832

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Attarian DE, McCrackin HJ, DeVito DP, McElhaney JH, Garrett WE Jr (1985) Biomechanical characteristics of human ankle ligaments. Foot Ankle 6:54–58

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Barnett CH, Napier JR (1952) The axis of rotation at the ankle joint in man: its influence upon the form of the talus and the mobility of the fibula. J Anat 86:1–9

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bonnin JG (1970) Injuries to the ankle (facsimile of the 1950 edition. Hafner Publishing, Darien

    Google Scholar 

  • Cailliet R (1997) Foot and ankle pain, 3rd edn. F.A. Davis, Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  • Deland JT, Morris GD, Sung IH (2000) Biomechanics of the ankle joint. A perspective on total ankle replacement. Foot Ankle Clin 5:747–759

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ferran NA, Maffulli N (2006) Epidemiology of sprains of the lateral ankle ligament complex. Foot Ankle Clin N Am 11:659–662

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Floyd RT, Thompson CW (2004) Manual of structural kinesiology, 15th edn. McGraw-Hill, Boston

    Google Scholar 

  • Fong DT-P, Hong Y, Chan L-K, Yung PS-H, Chan K-M (2007) A systematic review on ankle injury and ankle sprain in sports. Sports Med 37:73–94

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hastad K, Larsson LG, Lindholm A (1959) Clearance of radiosodium after local deposit in the Achilles tendon. Acta Chir Scand 116:251–255

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hertel J (2002) Functional anatomy, pathomechanics, and pathophysiology of lateral ankle instability. J Athl Train 37:364–375

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hicks JH (1953) The mechanics of the foot. I The joints. J Anat 87:345–357

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hootman JM, Dick R, Agel J (2007) Epidemiology of collegiate injuries for 15 sports: summary and recommendations for injury prevention initiatives. J Athl Train 42:311–319

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jorza LG, Kannus P (1997) Human tendons: anatomy, physiology and pathology. Human kinetics, Champaigne

    Google Scholar 

  • Lundberg A (1989) Kinematics of the ankle and foot: in vivo roentgen stereophotogrammetry. Acta Orthop Scand 60(Suppl 233):1–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lundberg A, Goldie I, Kalin B, Selvik G (1989a) Kinematics of the ankle/foot complex: plantar flexion and dorsiflexion. Foot Ankle 9:194–200

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lundberg A, Svensson OK, Nemeth G, Selvik G (1989b) The axis of rotation of the ankle joint. J Bone Joint Surg Br 71:94–99

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Maffulli N (1999) Rupture of the Achilles tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am 81:1019–1036

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Magee DJ (2002) Orthopedic physical assessment, 4th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  • Makhani JS (1962) Lacerations of the lateral ligaments of the ankle. J Int Coll Surg 38:454–466

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Miller CD, Shelton WR, Barrett GR, Savoie FH, Dukes AD (1995) Deltoid and syndesmosis ligament injury of the ankle without fracture. Am J Sports Med 23:746–750

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ogilvie-Harris DJ, Reed SC, Hedman TP (1994) Disruption of the ankle syndesmosis: biomechanical study of the ligamentous restraints. Arthroscopy 10:558–560

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rasmussen O (1985) Stability of the ankle joint. Analysis of the function and traumatology of the ankle ligaments. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl 211:1–75

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Renstrom PAFH, Konradsen L (1997) Ankle ligament injuries. Br J Sports Med 31:11–20

    Article  CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rodgers M (1988) Dynamic biomechanics of the normal foot and ankle during walking and running. Phys Ther 68:1822–1830

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sammarco GJ, Tablante EB (1998) Foot and ankle in dance. In: Sataloff RT, Brandfonbrener AG, Lederman RJ (eds) Performing arts medicine, 2nd edn. Singular Publishing Group, San Diego, pp 301–320

    Google Scholar 

  • Sammarco GJ, Burstein AH, Frankel VH (1973) Biomechanics of the ankle: a kinematic study. Orthop Clin North Am 4:75–96

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sarrafian SK (1993) Anatomy of the foot and ankle: descriptive, topographic, functional, 2nd edn. J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  • Siegler S, Block J, Schneck CD (1988) The mechanical characteristics of the collateral ligaments of the human ankle joint. Foot Ankle 8:234–242

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Standring S (2009) Gray’s anatomy, 40th edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh

    Google Scholar 

  • Stauffer RN, Chao EY, Brewster RC (1977) Force and motion analysis of the normal, diseased, and prosthetic ankle joint. Clin Orthop Relat Res 127:189–196

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stiehl JB (1991a) Anthropomorphic studies of the ankle joint. In: Stiehl JB (ed) Inman’s Joints of the ankle. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 1–6

    Google Scholar 

  • Stiehl JB (1991b) Biomechanics of the ankle joint. In: Stiehl JB (ed) Inman’s joints of the ankle. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 39–63

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomas RH, Daniels TR (2003) Ankle arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 85-A:923–936

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Murat Bozkurt .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this entry

Cite this entry

Bozkurt, M., Apaydin, N., Gursoy, S., Tubbs, S. (2014). Functional Anatomy of the Ankle . In: Doral, M., Karlsson, J. (eds) Sports Injuries. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36801-1_277-1

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36801-1_277-1

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-36801-1

  • eBook Packages: Springer Reference MedicineReference Module Medicine

Publish with us

Policies and ethics

Chapter history

  1. Latest

    Published:
    23 December 2014

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36801-1_277-2

  2. Original

    Published:
    08 October 2014

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36801-1_277-1