Skip to main content

Mountain Bike Injuries See See Mountain biking injuries : An Overview

Abstract

Mountain biking is a popular outdoor recreational activity, an exciting adventure sport, and now an Olympic cycling discipline. The overall injury rate is 16.8 injuries per 1,000 h exposure; 0.4 riders are injured per 100 h cross-country and 4.3 riders per 100 h downhill racing. The rate is higher for experts (17.9/1,000 h) compared to professional riders (13.4/1,000 h). More serious injuries to the head and neck occur while falling over the handlebars rather than falling off the bike to the side, which tends to result in lower limb injuries. Most injuries sustained mountain biking occur in young males aged 20–39 years. This chapter reviews the current literature on mountain biking injuries and developments in injury prevention.

Keywords

  • Injury Severity Score
  • Injury Rate
  • Olympic Game
  • Mountain Bike
  • Body Armor

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  • Aitken SA, Biant LC, Court-Brown CM (2011) Recreational mountain biking injuries. Emerg Med J 28:274–279

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Aleman KB, Meyers MC (2010) Mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents. Sports Med 40:77–90

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Applegate KE, Speigel PK (1995) Ulnar artery occlusion in mountain bikers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 35:232–234

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Aspingi S, Dussa CU, Soni BM (2006) Acute cervical spine injuries in mountain biking. Am J Sports Med 34:487–489

    Google Scholar 

  • Barnett B (1993) More on mountain biking. West J Med 159(6):708

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Becker J, Runer A, Neunhäuser D et al (2013) A prospective study of downhill mountain biking injuries. Br J Sports Med 47:458–464

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Callaghan MJ, Jane MJ (2000) Fracture dislocation of the tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc’s) joint by a mountain biker. Phys Ther Sport 1:15–18

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Carmont MR (2008) Mountain biking injuries: a review. Br Med Bull 85:1–12

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Carmont MR (2013) Mountain biking injuries, Chap 11. In: Mei-Dan O, Carmont MR (eds) Extreme and adventure sports injuries: epidemiology, rehabilitation and prevention. Springer, London/Heidelberg

    Google Scholar 

  • Chow TK, Kronisch RL (2002) Mechanisms of injury in competitive off road bicycling. Wilderness Environ Med 13:27–30

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chow TK, Bracker MD, Patrick K (1993) Acute injuries from mountain biking. West J Med 159:145–148

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chow TK, Corbett SW, Farstad DJ (1995) Do conventional bicycle helmets provide adequate protection in mountain biking? Wilderness Environ Med 6:385–390

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • De Rome L, Ivers R, Fitzhams M et al (2011) Motorcycle protective clothing: protection from injury or just the weather? Accid Anal Prev 43:1893–1900

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dodwell ER, Kwon BK, Hughes B et al (2010) Spinal column and spinal cord injuries in mountain bikers. A 13 year review. Am J Sports Med 38:1647–1652

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Engebretsen L, Soligard T, Steffen K et al (2013) Sports injuries and illnesses during the London summer olympic games 2012. Br J Sports Med 47(7):407–414

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Finch CF, McIntosh AS, McCrory P (2001) What do under 15 years old schoolboy rugby union players think about protective headgear? Br J Sports Med 35:89–94

    PubMed  CrossRef  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Frauscher F, Klauser A, Hobisch A et al (2000) Subclinical microtraumatisation of the scrotal contents in extreme mountain biking. Lancet 356:1414

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Frauscher F, Klauser A, Stenzl A et al (2001) US findings in the scrotum of extreme mountain bikers. Radiology 219:427–431

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fregly B, Zajac F (1996) A state space analysis of mechanical energy generation, absorption and transfer during pedalling. J Biomech 29:81–90

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gassner R, Tuli T, Emshoff R et al (1999a) Mountain biking- a dangerous sport: comparison with bicycling on oral and maxillofacial trauma. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 28:188–191

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gassner RJ, Hackl W, Tuli T et al (1999b) Differential profile of facial injuries among mountain bikers compared with bicyclists. J Trauma 1999(47):50–54

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gaulrapp H, Weber A, Rosemeyer B (2001) Injuries in mountain biking. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 9:48–53

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Grooten WJA, Genberg S, Jonasson L et al (1999) Injuries among Swedish mountain bike cyclists at an elite level. J Sports Traumatol Relat Res 21:196–205

    Google Scholar 

  • International Olympic Committee (2000) The games of the XXXVIII Olympiad mountain bike official results book. International Olympic Committee, Lausanne

    Google Scholar 

  • Jeys LM, Cribb G, Toms AD et al (2001) Mountain biking injuries in rural England. Br J Sports Med 35:197–199

    PubMed  CrossRef  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Junge A, Engebretsen L, Mountjoy ML et al (2009) Sports injuries during the summer olympic games 2008. Am J Sports Med 37:2165–2172

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kelly KD, Lissel HL, Rowe BH et al (2001) Sport and recreation-related head injuries treated in the emergency department. Clin J Sports Med 11:77–81

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kim PTW, Jangra D, Ritchie AH et al (2006) Mountain biking injuries requiring trauma centre admission. J Trauma 60:312–318

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kronisch RL, Rubin AL (1994) Traumatic injuries in off road bicycling. Clin J Sport Med 4:240–244

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Krosnich RL, Chow TK, Simon LM et al (1996a) Acute injuries in off-road bicycle racing. Am J Sports Med 24:88–94

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Krosnich RL, Pfeiffer RP, Chow TK (1996b) Acute injuries in cross country and downhill off road cycle racing. Med Sci Sports Exerc 28:1351–1355

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lareau SA, McGinnis HD (2011) Injuries in mountain bike racing: frequency of injuries in endurance versus cross country mountain bike races. Wilderness Environ Med 22:222–227

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McDermott FT (1993) The effectiveness of bicyclist’s helmets: a study of 1710 casualties. J Trauma 34:834–845

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nehoda H, Hochleitner BW, Hourmont K et al (2001) Central liver haematomas caused by mountain bike crashes. Injury 32:285–287

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nelson NG, McKenzie LB (2011) Mountain biking related injuries treated in emergency departments in the United States, 1994–2007. Am J Sports Med 39:404–409

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Patel ND (2004) Mountain bike injuries and clipless pedals: a review of three cases. Br J Sports Med 38:340–341

    PubMed  CrossRef  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Patterson JMM, Jaggars MM, Boyer MI (2003) Ulnar and median nerve palsy in long distance cyclists. Am J Sports Med 31:585–589

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pfeiffer RP (1994) Off road bicycle racing injuries-The NORBA pro/elite category. Clin Sports Med 13:207–218

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Quigley MA, Boyce SH (2005) Mountain biking injuries in south west Scotland: an analysis of injuries attending A & E. Presented at the British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine meeting 2005 Edinburgh. Br J Sports Med 40:90

    Google Scholar 

  • Rajapaske BN, Horne G, Devane P (1996) Forearm and wrist fractures in mountain bike riders. N Z Med J 109:147–148

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Revuelta R, Sandor GKB (2005) Degloving injury of the mandibular mucosa following an extreme sport accident: a case report. J Dent Child 72:104–106

    Google Scholar 

  • Ricchuti VS, Haas CA, Seftel AD et al (1999) Pudendal nerve injury associated with avid cycling. J Urol 162:2099–2100

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rivara FP, Thompson DC, Thompson RS et al (1997) Injuries involving off road cycling. J Fam Pract 44:481–485

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Singer G, Eberl R, Hoellwarth ME (2011) Pisotriquetral arthrodesis for pisotriquetral instability. J Hand Surg Am 36:299–303

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Slootmans FC, Biert J, de Waard JW et al (1995) Femoral neck fractures in bicyclists due to clipless pedals. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 139:1141–1143

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michael R. Carmont .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2014 ©Crown

About this entry

Cite this entry

Carmont, M.R. (2014). Mountain Bike Injuries See See Mountain biking injuries : An Overview. In: Doral, M., Karlsson, J. (eds) Sports Injuries. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36801-1_217-1

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36801-1_217-1

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-36801-1

  • eBook Packages: Springer Reference MedicineReference Module Medicine