Bayesian Modeling of Spatial Data

  • Peter CongdonEmail author
Living reference work entry


Bayesian inference and applications have been a central aspect in recent developments in spatial statistics. This influence has rested on advances in computer-based estimations via Markov Chain Monte Carlo including recent improvements to random walk MCMC approaches (e.g., Hamiltonian Monte Carlo). Bayesian ideas have been particularly influential in spatial econometrics, disease mapping, and analysis of point-referenced spatial data. Starting with models for univariate spatial data at a single time point, models can be extended to multivariate outcomes or to a space-time framework. Spatial models vary in how spatial dependence or correlation is represented, including neighborhood dependence in Markov fields models, explicit spatial decay in point-referenced spatial process models, and spatial lags or residual correlation effects in spatial autoregressive models. Aims of spatial analysis also differ, from ensuring regression analysis to allow for spatial dependence (spatial autoregressive models), to detecting disease clusters or elevated relative risk (disease mapping), to spatial prediction and interpolation (spatial process models). Bayesian implementation has been facilitated by a much improved computational environment centered on the R package.


Spatial autoregressive Conditional autoregression Spatial process Point pattern Disease mapping Spatial covariance Point patterns 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of GeographyQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK

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