Geographic Information Science

  • Michael F. GoodchildEmail author
  • Paul A. Longley
Living reference work entry


This chapter begins with a definition of geographic information science (GIScience). We then discuss how this research area has been influenced by recent developments in computing and data-intensive analysis, before setting out its core organizing principles from a practical perspective. The following section reflects on the key characteristics of geographic information, the problems posed by large data volumes, the relevance of geographic scale, the remit of geographic simulation, and the key achievements of GIScience to date. Our subsequent review of changing scientific practices and the changing problems facing scientists addresses developments in high-performance computing, heightened awareness of the social context of geographic information systems (GISystems), and the importance of neogeography in providing new data sources, in driving the need for new techniques, and in heightening a human-centric perspective.


GIScience GISystem Spatial analysis Fourth paradigm Big data 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Spatial Studies and Department of GeographyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.Consumer Data Research Centre and Department of GeographyUniversity College LondonLondonUK

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