Advertisement

Cities, Knowledge, and Innovation

  • Frank G. van OortEmail author
  • Jan G. Lambooy
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Based on an overview of historical conceptualizations of knowledge, knowledge diffusion and innovation in cities, we make a plea for conceptual and methodological renewals in research to address current impasses. Firstly, we conclude that analyses using knowledge production functions to capture knowledge flows do not, as of yet, provide full insight into the generation and transfer of different kinds of knowledge. Only recently are various conceptualizations of distance and knowledge transmission channels able to address the heterogeneity of the actors and processes involved in capturing the respective role of cities in knowledge creation. Research should more explicitly focus on the transfer mechanisms of knowledge diffusion. Secondly, our plea for a better embedding of the mechanisms that create and diffuse knowledge is extended to the current discourse on agglomeration externalities in which new conceptual and methodological views appear to be needed as well. In particular, evolutionary economic geographical concepts are promising in explaining the innovative behavior of growing firms and organizations in cities, carefully addressing the heterogeneity of the actors involved, spatial scale, selection and survival as well as time and path dependency. Econometric identification strategies help achieving these goals.

Keywords

Cities Agglomeration Knowledge Innovation Diffusion Evolutionary economics Spatial scale Identification 

References

  1. Ackers L (2005) Moving people and knowledge: scientific mobility in the European Union. Int Migr 43:99–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acs ZJ (2002) Innovation and the growth of cities. Edward Elgar, CheltenhamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aghion P, Howitt P (1992) A model of growth through creative destruction. Econometrica 60:323–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Almeida P, Kogut B (1999) Localization of knowledge and the mobility of engineers in regional networks. Manag Sci 45:905–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Audretsch DB, Feldman MP (1996) R&D spillovers and the geography of innovation and production. Am Econ Rev 86:630–640Google Scholar
  6. Autant-Bernard C, LeSage J (2011) Quantifying knowledge spillovers using spatial econometric tools. J Reg Sci 51:471–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baumol WJ (2002) The free-market innovation machine. Princeton University Press, PrincetonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beaudry C, Schiffauerova A (2009) Who’s right, Marshall or Jacobs? The localization versus urbanization debate. Res Policy 38:318–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boschma RA (2005) Proximity and innovation. A critical assessment. Reg Stud 39:61–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brakman S, Garretsen H, van Marrewijk C (2009) The new introduction to geographical economics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Breschi S, Lissoni F (2001) Knowledge spillovers and local innovation systems: a critical survey. Ind Corp Chang 10:975–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Breschi S, Lissoni F (2009) Mobility of skilled workers and co-invention networks: an anatomy of localized knowledge flows. J Econ Geogr 9:439–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Capelli R, Boschma R, Weterings A (2018) Labour mobility, skill-relatedness and new plant survival across different stages of an industry. Environ Plan A.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0308518X18812466
  14. Caragliu A, Nijkamp P (2016) Space and knowledge spillovers in European regions: the impact of different forms of proximity on spatial knowledge diffusion. J Econ Geogr 16(3):749–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Castells M (1996) The rise of the network society. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  16. Chandra R, Sandilands RJ (2005) Does modern endogenous growth theory adequately represent Allyn Young? Camb J Econ 29:463–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ciccone A (2002) Agglomeration effects in Europe. Eur Econ Rev 46:213–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Combes PP, Mayer T, Thisse JF (2008) Economic geography. The integration of regions and nations. Princeton University Press, PrincetonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cortinovis N, Van Oort FG (2018) Between spilling over and boiling down: network-mediated spillovers, local knowledge base and productivity in European regions. J Econ Geogr (online first).  https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lby058
  20. Cortinovis N, Xiao J, Boschma R, van Oort FG (2017) Quality of government and social capital as drivers of regional diversification in Europe. J Econ Geogr 17:1179–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Crescenzi R, Nathan M, Rodríguez-Pose A (2016) Do inventors talk to strangers? On proximity and collaborative knowledge creation. Res Policy 45(1):177–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Duranton G, Puga D (2004) Micro-foundations of urban agglomeration economies. In: Henderson JV, Thisse JF (eds) Handbook of urban and regional economics vol. 4. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 2063–2117Google Scholar
  23. Florida R (2002) The rise of the creative class. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Frenken K, van Oort FG, Verburg T (2007) Related variety, unrelated variety and regional economic growth. Reg Stud 41:685–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fritsch M, Slavtchev V (2007) Universities and innovation in space. Ind Innov 14:201–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gaspar J, Glaeser EL (1998) Information technology and the future of cities. J Urban Econ 43:136–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Glaeser EL (2011) Triumph of the city. Penguin Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Glaeser EL, Kallal HD, Scheinkman JA, Schleifer A (1992) Growth in cities. J Polit Econ 100:1126–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Glaeser EL, Kolko J, Saiz A (2001) Consumer city. J Econ Geogr 1:27–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hyysalo S (2009) User innovation and everyday practices. R&D Manag 39:247–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jaffe A, Trajtenberg M, Henderson R (1993) Geographic localization of knowledge spillovers as evidenced by patent citations. Q J Econ 108:577–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jons H (2007) Transnational mobility and the spaces of knowledge production: a comparison of global patterns, motivations and collaborations in different academic fields. Soc Geogr 2:97–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kirzner I (1973) Competition and entrepreneurship. Chicago University Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  34. Krugman P (2009) The increasing returns revolution in trade and geography. Am Econ Rev 99:561–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lambooy J, van Oort FG (2005) Agglomerations in equilibrium? In: Brakman S, Garretsen H (eds) Location and competition. Routledge, London, pp 79–108Google Scholar
  36. Markusen A (1999) Fuzzy concepts, scanty evidence, policy distance: the case for rigor and policy relevance in critical regional studies. Reg Stud 33:869–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McCann P, van Oort FG (2009) Theories of agglomeration and regional economic growth: a historical review. In: Capello R, Nijkamp P (eds) Handbook of regional growth and development theories. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 19–32Google Scholar
  38. Melo PC, Graham DJ, Noland RB (2010) A meta-analysis of estimates of urban agglomeration economies. Reg Sci Urban Econ 39:332–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Metcalfe JS (1998) Evolutionary economics and creative destruction. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nonaka I, Takeuchi H (1995) The knowledge-creating company. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Nooteboom B (2002) Learning and innovation in organizations and economies. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Pasinetti LL (1981) Structural change and economic growth. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  43. Polanyi M (1958) Personal knowledge. Chicago University Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  44. Ponds R, van Oort FG, Frenken K (2010) Innovation, spillovers, and university-industry collaboration: an extended knowledge production function approach. J Econ Geogr 10:231–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schumpeter JA (1934) Theory of economic development. MIT-Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  46. Singh J (2005) Collaborative networks as determinants of knowledge diffusion patterns. Manag Sci 51:756–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Solow RM (1956) A contribution to the theory of economic growth. Q J Econ 70:65–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Storper M, Venables AJ (2004) Buzz: face-to-face contact and the urban economy. J Econ Geogr 4:351–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Van Oort FG, Burger MJ, Knoben J, Raspe O (2012) Multilevel approaches and the firm-agglomeration ambiguity in economic growth studies. J Econ Surv 26:468–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Young A (1928) Increasing returns and economic progress. Econ J 38:527–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Erasmus School of EconomicsErasmus University RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Economic Geography, Faculty of GeociencesUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations