Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology

2015 Edition
| Editors: Ian P. Stolerman, Lawrence H. Price


Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36172-2_7037


Optical neural control; Photostimulation


A neuromodulatory set of tools and techniques in neuroscience that involve the introduction of light-sensitive proteins, called opsins, into living cells and into the intact brain of freely moving animals to permit real-time control (both electrical and biochemical) of genetically defined populations of cells and neural circuits with both high spatial and temporal precision.

Principles and Role in Psychopharmacology

Neuropsychiatric Illness as a Disease of Altered Brain Circuitry

A paradigm shift is occurring in how scientists and clinicians fundamentally think of neuropsychiatric diseases. Although psychopathology has long been thought to represent underlying neural chemical imbalances, it is becoming increasingly recognized that such an approach may not fully capture the complexity of neuropsychiatric illness. Indeed, pharmaceutical research and development based on this chemical imbalance approach has produced drugs that...

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neurobiology and BehaviorCornell UniversityIthacaUSA